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nSSERTATtON 

50100 



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PLACE-NAMES 



OF 



WILTSHIRE 



THEIR ORIGIN AND HISTORY 



INAUGURAL DISSERTATION 



BY 



EINAR EKBLOM 

Lie. PHIL., OSTG. 



^PPSALA 



BY DUE PERMISSION OF THE PHILOSOPHICAL FACULTY OF 

TO BE PUBLICLY DISCUSSED (iN ENGLISH) IN LECTURE HALL I, 

MAY 25th, 1917, AT 10 o'clock a. M. 

FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY 



^;^X^ b t. 'A K p 
ff OF THH 

iiy NIVERSITV| 




UPPSALA 1917 
APPELBERGS BOKTRYCKERI A.-B. 



X 



THE PLACE-NAMES 



OF 



WILTSHIRE 



THEIR ORIGIN AND HISTORY 



IN AUG URAL DISSER TA TION 



BY 



EINAR EKBLOM 

Lie. PHIL., OSTG. 



BY DUE PERMISSION OF THE PHILOSOPHICAL FACULTY OF UPPSALA 

TO BE PUBLICLY DISCUSSED (iN ENGLISH) IN LECTURE HALL I, 

MAY 25th, 1917, AT 10 o'clock A. M. 

FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY 



UPPSALA 1917 
APPELBERGS BOKTRYCKERI A.-B. 



Preface. 

No branch of English philology seems of late years to 
have aroused such great interest as the study of place- 
nomenclature, and, if one were to judge from the many 
works that have been published on this subject, the science 
in question ought to be at a comparatively advanced stage. 
A closer investigation of these works, however, Avill show 
that a great part of them by no means satisfy the claims 
of strict scholarship. As far as one can see, the study of 
English place-names has to a certain extent fallen into the 
hands of persons who have not sufficient knowledge of 
philology to be able to fulfil their task in a satisfactory 
way. It is also indisputable that this study to a great 
extent encourages dilettantism. 

Two general points in which Englisli place-name scholars 
have laid themselves open to criticism are the following: 
I) the importance of the dialects as a factor in the devel- 
opment of the names seems entirely neglected ; 2) insuffi- 
cient attention is paid to geographical and topographical 
considerations. Moreover, manv scholars content themselves 
with an inadequate collection of material, which naturally 
must also affect the reliability of their conclusions. On 
the other hand^ however, it is evident that in this subject 
there are many points which are too difficult and uncertain 
to be settled, in spite of all attempts at thoroughness. 
Many names, for instance, contain Celtic elements, which are 
most often impossible to explain, but even Germanic ele- 
ments may be very difficult to identif}^, when, as is some- 



IV 

times the case, the old forms are unsatisfactory. Another 
fact which renders this study so difficult is the intimate 
connection of place-names Avith personal names, the 
study of the latter belonging to a quite different depart- 
ment of philology. 

In this work are discussed all Wiltshire place-names 
given in Bartholomew's Gazetteer of the British Isles [ed. 
1911], of which forms, previous to A. D. 1500, have been 
found ^. As for the material, which was collected partly 
in the Library of the British Museum, partly at the Univ. 
Library in Uppsala, I have had recourse to all those OE 
and ME documents Avhich seemed to be valuable for this 
purpose; (in addition to those documents that are to be 
found in the bibliography, several others were searched 
which, however, proved to be valueless). In this I have 
endeavoured to get as many different spellings as possible 
represented (very corrupt forms have been left out), and 
for this reason the collection of material may claim to be 
fairly complete. In this part of the Avork, however, much 
difficulty arose over the question of identification. The 
editors of the ME documents are as a rule very accurate in 
this respect, though one may occasionally discover mistakes, 
and Jones' identifications especially seem carefully thought 
out. Kemble's identifications of the names in CD, on the 
other hand, are far from satisfactory. Among the numerous 
mistakes in the index to this work there are also startling 
inconsistences, such as when tAvo adjacent places in the 
same charter are located in entirely different parts of a 
county, nay eA^en in quite different counties. The few 
mistakes made by Birch in CS are of a far less serious 
nature. It ma}' be pointed out that Birch sometimes gives 
an identity as certain on the strength merely of an OE 



^ As an additional source I have used the 1-inch maps of 
the Ordnance Survey. The names which do not occur in Bai-- 
tholomew are, however, few in number. 



form, when there is no confirmation from boundaries, etc. 
As, however, the OE charters are more carefully rendered 
bv Birch in his CS, I have found it convenient to use 
this edition (up to A. D. 975), the versions of other editors 
(which in CS occur in foot-notes) being given in brackets. 
It is, however, an unfortunate fact that most of these 
forms, like the charters themselves, are not genuine but 
ME falsifications of the originals. Finally, as regards the 
names in the AS Chr., the question of their modern equi- 
valents is, as is well known, to a great extent unsettled. 
The duty of a philologist with regard to the solution of 
these problems is naturally to put forward the philological 
considerations in any contested case. 

The place-names of Wiltshire have not been subjected 
to any scientific investigation before, with the exception 
of a few names, which have been discussed more or less 
cursorily in other works, e. g. CricMade by Duignan (Notes 
on Staffs. PL Ns, p. 116), Devizes by Zachrisson (Anglia 
XXXIY, p. 319), Malmeshuri/ by Miller (Quellen u. Forsch- 
ungen, Heft 78). 



It is ni}^ pleasant duty to express my sincere gratitude 
to all those who have assisted me in carrying out my 
work. Above all I am indebted to Professor Erik Bjork- 
man, my teacher in English philology, for invaluable advice 
on various points and for the great interest he has always 
taken in my English studies. For many helpful suggestions 
my acknowledgements are also due to Mr Henry Alexander, 
Lector at the University of Uppsala, who has, in addition, 
revised my treatise from a stylistic point of view. Finally, 
I beg to thank all those who have informed me about 
dialectal, topographic, and other local matters, which it 
has been necessary for me to know, and especially Hev. 



VI 



E. H. Goddard, Swindon, Seer, of Wilts. Archaeo]. and 
Nat. Hist. Soc, Mr J. E. Taylor, Headmaster of Marl- 
borough College, Mr J. C. Longstaff, Holt, and D:r J. 
Kjederqvist, Stockholm. 
Uppsala, May 1917. 

Einar Ekhlom. 



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VIII 

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IX 

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XI 



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An Etymological Dictionary of the English Language. 



4th ed. Oxford 1910. 
Stark, P., Die Kosenamen der Germanen. Wien 1868. [Stark.] 
Stenton. F. M., The Place-Names of Berkshire. Reading 1911. 
Stevenson, W. H., Some Old-English words omitted or imper- 
fectly explained in dictionaries (in Trans, of the Philol. Soc. 

vol. 1895—98). 
Stokes, W. and Bezzenberger, A., Wortschatz der keltischen 

Spracheinheit. Gottingen 1894. [Stokes.] 
Stolze, M., Zur Lautlehre der altenglischen Ortsnamen im Domesday 

Book. Berlin 1902. [Stolze.] 
Stratmann, P. H. and Bradley, H., A Middle English Dictionary. 

Oxford 1891. 
Sveriges Ortnamn: Ortnamnen i Alvsborgs Ian. Pa offentligt 

uppdrag utgivna af Kungl. Ortnamnskommitten. Stockholm 

1906 f. In progress. 
Swaen, A. E. H., Contributions to Anglo-Saxon Lexicography IV. 

(Engl. Stud. 37.) [Swaen.] 
Sweet, H., A Primer of Spoken English. Oxford 1906. 
Tanger, G., Englisches Namen-Lexikon. Berlin 1888. 
Walker, B., The Place-Names of Derbyshire. (Journal of the 

Derbyshire Archseol. and Nat. Hist. Soc. 1914, 15.) [Walker.] 
Watts, Th., On the Anglo-Saxon termination -ing. (Proceedings 

of the Philol. Soc. 1848—50, vol. IV.) 
Werdam, J., Middelnederlandsch Handwoordenboek. 's-Graven- 

hage 1911. 

II E. Ekhlom 



XVI 

Westphal, J., Englische Ortsnamen im Altfranzosischen. Sbrass- 
burg 1891. [Westphal.] 

Winkler, J., Friesche Naamlijst (Onomasticon Frisicum). Leeu- 
warden 1898. 

Wright, J., Old English Grammar. Oxford 1908. [Wright.] 

Wyld, H. C, and Hirst, T. 0., The Place-Names of Lanca- 
shire, their origin and history. London 1911. [Wyld.] 

Zachrisson, R. E., A Contribution to the Study of Anglo-Norman 
Influence on English Place-Names. Lund 1909. [Zachrisson.] 

, Some Instances of Latin Influence on English Place- 
Nomenclature. (Lunds universitets arsskr.) 1910. 

, The French Definite Article in English Place-Names. 



(Anglia XXXIV.) 1911. 

, Two Instances of French Influence on English Place- 
Names (Stud, i mod. sprakvet. V, Uppsala 1914). 

^ Notes on Early English Personal Names (Stud, i mod. 

sprakvet. VI, Uppsala 1917). 

III. Maps. 

Pearson's historical maps^ see above, p. xiv. 

Gary's New English x\tlas; ed. J. Gary. London 1809. 

The 1-inch Ordnance Survey Maps of Wiltshire. 



Abbreviations (not given above). 



ace. 
AN 

Angl. 

AS 

Beds. 

Berks. 

Bucks. 

Cambs. 

Cumb. 

dat. 

Dors. 

E. R. of Yorks.' 

f. (fern.) 

gen. 

Glos. 

Hants. 

Herts. 

Hunts. 

Lanes. 

Lat. 

Leies. 

m. (masc.) 

ME 

MLG 

mod. 

mun. bor. 

n. 

NE 

Northants. 

Notts. 

OE 

OF 

OHG 



= accusative. 

= Anglo-Norman. 

— Anglian. 

= Anglo-Saxon. 
= Bedfordshire. 
= Berkshire. 
= Buckinghamshire. 
= Cambridgeshire. 

— Cumberland. 
= dative. 

= Dorset. 

= East Riding of Yorkshire. 

= feminine. 

= genitive. 

= Gloucestershire. 

= Hampshire. 

= Hertfordshire. 

= Huntingdonshire. 

= Lancashire. 

= Latin. 

= Leicestershire. 

= masculine. 

= Middle English. 

= Middle Low German. 

= modern. 

= municipal borough. 

= neuter. 

=: New English. 

= Northamptonshire. 

= Nottinghamshire. 

= Old English. 

= Old French. 

= Old High German. 



XVIII 



Oxfs. 


= 


Oxfordshire. 


p. n(s) 


= 


personal name(s). 


pi. n(s) 


= 


place-namp(s). 


prim. Germ. 


= 


primitive Germanic. 


Scand. 


= 


Scandinavian. 


Soms. 


= 


Somerset. 


Staffs. 


= 


Staffordshire. 


Warws. 


= 


Warwickshire. 


Wilts. 


= 


Wiltshire. 


Worcs. 


= 


Worcestershire. 


W. R. of Yorks. 


= 


West Riding of Yorkshire 


WS 




West Saxon. 



Introduction. 

Wiltshire is an inland county, situated in the south- 
western part of England, S of the upper Thames. In Old 
English times it consequently^ belonged to the territory of the 
West-Saxon dialect. The following old references to the name 
of the county may be quoted: [A. D. 800] Wilscetan, mid 
Wilscetum AS Chr. [A], Wilscete ib. [E]; {^l^Wiltunscireih. 
[A] (interpolated); [878] Wilscetan ib. [A], WiUscete ib. [E]; 
940 — 46 l^m wiltschire OS no. 817; 955 to Wiltunscire ib. 
no. 912; [981] on Wiltunscire AS Chr. [C]; [994] Wiltunscire 
ib. [A]; 996—1006 to Wiltunesdre CD no. 716; [1003] of 
Wiltun scire AS Chr. [E]; 1086 Wiltescire DB; 1160 Wiltescijr 
Macray; 1196 Wiletescf Feet of fines; 1215 in WiUtesire 
Rot. Ch.; 1237 Wijltijs CI. R; 1317 on Wiltun scire Ch. E; 
c. 1540 Whileshir{e) (several times) Leland. 

The oldest name was consequently Wils^tan, WilsMe, 
which denoted 'the settlers on the Wiley-stream'. Of these 
two forms, the former is the genuine one [< prim. Germ. 
'■''-scetjon-; cf . OHG -sciso, OLG (land)setio]. WilsMe is, in its turn, 
to be considered as a secondary formation on the analogy 
of such names as Dene, Engle, Seaxe, etc. If this original 
form had been able to develop normally, the modern name 
would consequently have been '-Wilset (in the same way as 
the adjoining counties in the west and south are called 
Somerset and Dorset). Like most counties, however, Wilt- 



^ The sign (f) indicates that the name before which it appears 
is ont genuine but a later (ME) rendering. 

1 E. Ekhlom 



shire, came to be called after its chief town Wilton, and the 
change of the name has certainly taken place in the later 
OE period (probably before A. D. 1000). 

This would perhaps be the place to give a summar}^ 
account of the antiquities, history, and topography of the 
county, things with which place-names are often so intimately 
connected, but as these subjects are thoroughly dealt with 
in other places ^, I have contented myself with calling 
attention to such points only in connection with those 
names which for one reason or another demand it. It 
is, however, all the more necessary to state what the 
present investigation has discovered about the ancient 
colonization of the county. That the Normans in their 
time were predominant in these parts is shown not 
only by the abundance of French family names, which 
occur as distinctive names, but also from the strong in- 
fluence that their language has exercised on the place- 
names. In the treatment of this part of the subject I have 
in most cases been able to refer to Zachrisson's work 'A 
Contribution to the Study of AN Infl. on Engl. PL Ns", 
which has proved most valuable. But I think that the 
present treatise will also contribute some additional ma- 
terial to Zachrisson's own collection. Attention may here 
be drawn to. a few cases of AN influence, which are of 
particular interest (for further information on these names 
see below): Devises, derived from OFrench devises (plur. of 
devise = 'boundary^); the form Graveling{es), wdiich was 
current in ME as a variant of Oravele, mod. Grovely [prob. 
< *gr^fan leak (lea^e)], due to the influence of Oravelines, 
the sea-port on the other side of the Channel. Note also 
such names as: Bushton (< '■''bise{e)opes tun), Groundwell 
[< '^grinde- {grinda-1) wyU{e)], Landford (< ^se laiiga ford), 

^ e. g. in R. C. Hoaro: The Ancient History of Wiltshiro, 
London 1812 — 21; The Magazine of Wilts. Archseol. and Nat. 
Hist. Soc; Devizes, 1854 — ; F. R. Heath: Wiltsliire, London 
1911. 



Roundivay (prob. < '^Hringan tveg), and WinJcfield [< '"^Wines 
{Winanl) feld], in which the alteration of the first elements 
has been occasioned by AN spelling and pronunciation. 

Dunkirk (a hamlet near Devizes) is a name borrowed 
from Dimkerque [Dunkirk] (in the present French Flanders) 
and therefore probably introduced by Flemings. 

Continental p. ns occurring as first elements in Wilts, 
pi. ns are: Bluncl (in Blunsdon), Boia (Boyton), Cort [Cor- 
{ti7ig)ton], Eliasl (Elston), (^')Fallard {Faulstone), Flamhard 
(Flamston), Hepj^o (^Heppal) [Hippenscombe], Oda {Odstock, 
probably), Radbod (RabsonY- 

The Scand. elements in Wilts, pi. ns are limited to a 
number of p. ns; apart from these, as is to be expected 
from the situation of the county, no Scand. influence 
whatever has been traced. The only word which might be 
taken as Scand. is brink (in Brinkivorih), although it is very 
doubtful if we are justified in assuming this. The most 
certain of the Scand. p. ns occurring here are: "^Aska 
(< Aski) [in Axford], "^'Buter (Butr) [Buttermere], Estrid 
(Heytesbury), Oamel (or *Qamela) [Gomeldon], Orim (Grims 
Ditch, Grlmstead), Hacun (Haxton), '"Kale (Kali) [Calstone], 
Raf{e)n {Ramsbiiry), Rolf [Rollestone), Tola (< Toli) [ToUard], 
*Ugga (< Uggi) [Ugford]. Several of these names have no 
doubt been introduced by the Normans, but some of 
them probably also go back to the time of the Danish 
Kings, when Scand. p. ns may have gained ground even 
in those parts of England which had earlier remained 
quite untouched by Scand. influence. But a Scand. settle- 
ment in the real sense of the word seems never to have 
existed in Wilts. 

Finally it must be noticed that a not unimportant Celtic 
element seems to have survived in these parts even after 



^ Only three of these names are Romance: Blund, Elias, and 
probably Fallard; one is Celtic, viz. Boia; all the others Ger- 
manic. 



the Germanic tribes had settled down there, for, apart from 
such names as contain Celtic words which have become 
current in the English language [e. g. doivn {don) and 
comhe (coomhe)], there are about thirthy pi. ns in Wilts., 
which, partly or entirely, are in all probability of Celtic 
origin. This is really not surprising when we consider 
the proximity of Wilts, to the Welsh borders. Although 
it has been impossible for me to interpret most of them, 
their forms conclusively prove that they cannot be Ger- 
manic. Names which in all probability contain Celtic ele- 
ments are Braydon, Calne. Cherhill, Cheverell, Chnte, Conock, 
Corston, Cricklade, Deverill (see Brixton De/verill). Crudivell, 
Keevil, KeUaivays. Kemwt, KnooJc, Knoyle, Preshute, Quemer- 
ford, Qiudhampton, SavernaJce, Shorncote, Stourton, Wan- 
horough, Warminster, Wellow, and Wylye (Wily). It is also 
most probable that some pi. ns conceal p. ns of Celtic 
origin. Of such p. ns may be mentioned Cada (in Cadnam, 
Catcomh(i), Cead{d)a (in ChaddenwicJce) [both probably short- 
ened forms of the Celtic Ccedwalla and its anglicized variant 
Ceadw(e)aUa respectively], and Peuf (in Pewsey, Pewsham). 
The fact, however, that there existed such a great number 
of Germanic p. ns as well which def}^ any attempt at a 
plausible explanation (I refer especially to the common 
hypocoristic formations) makes it verj^ dangerous to state 
that an obscure p. n. is definitely Celtic or Germanic. 



Abbotston [locally pronounced cebdst'n] ^ E of Downton. 

1272 Abofeston Pat. E; 1296 Ahhodesdon CLE; 1316 Ahhocl- 
eston YK\ 1338 Ahhesseton Cal. Inq. ; 1348 Ahhoteston ib.; 
1404 Abheston Phillipps' fines; 1459 Abbeston Cal. Inq. 

From an orioinal ^abbodes tun. OE tun, the commonest 
of all terminations in English pi. ns., meant 'enclosed place 
or piece of ground", 'farmstead', ^hamlet', -ton is very often 
confused with -don [< OE dun}, and it is therefore some- 
times impossible to settle which of them was the primitive 
element. The contracted ME forms indicate that the modern 
local pronunciation was alread}^ current in ME. 

Abiington N of Amesbury. 
1086 Alboldintone DB; 1223 Ablhiton Pat. E; 1227 Ablinton 
Ch. E; 1252 Eblinton (twice) ib.; 1485, 1487 Ablyngton C. 
Inq.; 1560 Abiington Br. Mus. 

I derive this name from an original '■'Eadbealdinga tun 
\= the farmstead of Eadbeald's descendants]. The first I in 
the DB form is certainly a spelling mistake, and -bold- 
(for bald) is due to w^eakened stress, -in- is an AN rendering 
of -ing- (see Bjorkman, Pers. I, p. 137). The initial a-vow^el 
implies a shortening either of the original diphthong itself 
or of ce (in the transition period), while in the case of 
Eblinton the shortening is of a later date. This explanation 
is to be preferred to the one given by Wyld, p. 25, according 
to whom the a-forms are due to shifting of stress in the OE 
diphthong. It is to be noticed that initial ea in that case 



^ The phonetic transcription used in this work is that of 
Sweet, given in his Primer of Spoken English, 



G 

would more probably have become ^ea, id (see Sievers § 
212, note 2, and Zachrisson, p. 65); of. Urchfont (DB Jerclies- 
fonte, Pipe R Archesfunte), below. 

The present name offers an opportunity of discussing 
those cases in which a medial -m^-suffix in pi. ns. occurs 
unin fleeted in OE charters (e. g. jEdilutilfing lond CS no. 
303). Kemble's opinion about such forms [in Proc. of the 
Philol. Soc. lY] is that this -ing has the special function of 
being the equivalent of the strong gen. ending (consequently 
JEdiluulfing = JEdiluulfes). Against this opinion Th. Watts 
maintains (in the same volume, p. 83) that the -ing-iorm. in 
question is a sort of uninflected adjective analogous to 
Pariser, Londoner, etc. in German. 

Both these opinions are consequently based on the suppo- 
sition that these -mi^-forms were originally uninflected, 
and this seems also to have been accepted by other scholars. 
There is, however, strong reason to doubt such strange 
functions of the -m^-suffix, which, in addition, seem to be 
quite unknown in the other Germanic languages. The fact 
is that many of those forms on which Kemble bases his 
theory are taken from charters bearing evident signs of 
being ME copies (Kemble himself marks several of them 
in CD as not genuine). Nothing prevents us therefore 
from considering all of them simply as ME forms of 
original gen. plurals (jEdiluulfinga). Many examples show 
that this gen. plur. ending may have quite disappeared 
even as early as in DB (when it survives it is represented 
by -e-). 

Another curious statement concerning this 'non-inflected' 
-m^-suffix is made by Moorman (PL Ns of the W. Riding 
of Yorks. Introd. p. xli), according to whom it was used 
in OE instead of tlie ending -an to denote the gen. sing, 
case of a p. n. of the weak declension. This also has no 
sound evidence to support it. The fact of the matter is 
that OE -an sometimes develops into -ing, a transition 
which must be due to the analogy of the many pi. ns 



containing a patronymic as the first element, but this 
change did certainly not take place until ME times (see 
Alexander, Mod. Lang. Rev. VII, p. 70). 

Consequently, in deciding the etymology of a ])\. n. 
containing as the first element a patronymic of a strong 
p. n., uninflected even in its oldest forms, we have to 
assume an original gen. plur. case, but the m^-suffix of a 
weak p. n. may sometimes also be derived from the gen. -an. 

Aicombe NW of Box. 

1496 Alcomhe C. Inq. 

This single ME form does not tell us very much. The 
original name may have been "^jEllan, [or Allan] cumh. 
For the p. ns jElla, Alia see Mliller, p. 45, and Bjorkman, 
Pers. I, p. 4, respectively. OE cumh (= small valley) is 
generally supposed to be of Celtic origin. Modern Welsh 
has civ7n in the same sense. 

Aldbourne N of Eamsbury. 

1086 Aldehorne DB; 1181 Aldibmna Pipe E;- 1194 Aldeburd 
Eot. Cur.; 1206 Aldehuru E. L. CI.;- 1214 Audibrh ib.; 1225 
Audiburh E. fin. exc. ; 1229 Audiburn Ch. E; c. 12^0 Alde- 
hurn{e)T, EccL; 1310 Aldehorne C. Inq.; 1428 Aldehourne FA. 
Originally ''"cet Ealdan (Angl. Aldan) hurne {human), re- 
ferring to the little affluent of the Eiver Kennet on which 
the place is situated. OE hitrn f., hurne f., hurna m. = 
''small stream^ ^brook'. The first element was certainlv the 
gen. of Ealda (Alda)^, Avhich may be regarded either as a 
nickname meaning ^the old one^ or as a shortened form of 
some p. n. beginning with Eald- e. g. Ealdhelm, Ealdred 
(or their Angl. equivalents). The OE ending -an in the 
middle of pi. ns is most often weakened to e in earliest 
ME. The present pi. n. indicates that this e has been 



^ The possibility that the first element might represent the 
OE adj. eald is certainly out of the question as this would not 
give a likely meaning. 



8 

syncopated before the ME transition of a > q. (For those 
cases in which the OE -an- is retained as (e)n or changed 
into in, ing, see Alexander, Mod. Lang. Rev. VII; see also 
Bavnton, below.) Aude- shows AN vocalization of I. 

Alderbury SE of Salisbury. 

972 ^delware hyrig CS no. 1286 [possibly identicall; 
1086 Ahvarberie, Alwaresberie DB; c. 1115 Ahvarhiri Os- 
mund; 1139? Alwardheria Macray; c. 1190 de Alwardebirie 
Osmund; 1194 de Ahvarhrie Rot. Cur.; 1215 — 20 de Alwar- 
hurie Osmund; 1222 Ahuardbur. ib.; 1243 Alwarbire Macray 
Hen. Ill Ayhvardebyr Rot. H; 1287 Ahvardesbuii C. Inq. 
c. 1290 Alwardbury, Aylivardbury, Aldeiverbury T. Eccl. 
13th cent, in Aldwardbirice Ltiher rub.; IS18 Aldetvardebury 
Pat. R. ; 1341 Alrehury Cal. Rot. Ch.; Edv. Ill Ahvardesburi 
C. Inq.; 1476 Aleivardbury Cal. Inq.; c. 1540 Alivardbyri 
Lei and. 

Originally '^cBt ^Edehveardes byri^, or possibly jEdelivare b. 
[although '■^^delwaru (fern.) is not recorded as an independent 
p. n.]. The development of OE cedel in p. ns and pi. ns is 
discussed by Zachrisson, p. LOl ff. 

The series of old forms given above proves that the 
definitive change of Alwar{d)- > Alder- did not take place 
until NE times, but tendencies in this direction seem to 
have existed even in ME, judging from the forms quoted 
from T. Eccl., Liber rub., Pat. R., and Cal. Rot. Ch. This 
change must be due to analogy with the many pi. ns 
which contain Alder- as the first element. Such a name is 
found even in the neighbourhood of Alderbur}^ viz. Al- 
der(s)ton (see below). OE burh (dat. byri^) denoted 'a forti- 
fied place\ For e as a representative of OE y in DB see 
Stolze § 15. The final e in -berle has been added in analogy 
Avith those names in which -e in this position represents 
the OE dat. form. 

If the origin'^ jEdelweardes byr'i^ is correct, the two DB forms 
are of special interest because they show that the strong gen. -s 



might have been dropped here. Doublets of this kind are not 
rare either in DB or in other ME documents. xA^ccording to 
Zachrisson, p. 119. the circumstance that there existed two 
forms of the gen. in many OE p. ns used as the first element 
in pi. ns, one with s, the other without {Frocles — Frodan, etc.) 
may easily have led to confusion and uncertainty in the use 
of s between two pi. n. compounds in general. Alexander 
(Mod. Lang. Eev. VII, p. 66 f .) gives other explanations which 
also seem reasonable. Here may be mentioned another 
circumstance which might have been an even more important 
cause of the omission of the s in question, viz. the fact that 
the French gen. had no inflectional ending. We may mention 
such French pi. ns of this type as Martin- hose (A. D. 1130), 
Rohert-Camp (A. D. 1181) [quoted from Kornmesser, pp. 53, 
47]. Loss of a medial gen. -s in English pi. ns may there- 
fore be due to a great extent to the influence of such French 
names. An original name of the type ^^delwearcl hyri^ is 
naturally impossible ^. (For the insertion of an inorganic s 
and the omission of a stem s in the composition joint see 
under Gorton.) 

Note, cewelburhe {heme diche) CD no. 654 is identified by 
Kemble with Alderbury, Wilts. The absurdity of this identi- 
fication is proved by Bradley [Acadeni}^. June 2, 1894]. 

AIder(s)ton near Whiteparish. 

1166 de Alderestoh Pipe E,; 1272 Aderedeston Pat. E; 1318 
Aldredeston R Pat.; 1314 Aldredestonc C. Tnq.; l^l^ Aldre- 
ston FA; 1324 Aldredeston Pat. R. 

From '-"•'' Ealdredes tun, the first element being' a common 
OE p. n. 



^ It seems, however, as if some scholars would admit the 
possibility of such a form. Thus, Alexander (in Mod. Lang. 
Eev. VII, p. 67) refers to a suggestion of Prof. Wyld that '^a 
usage without a gen. ending may be due to the fact that the 
p. n. was felt to be a sort of adjective qualif^nng the second 
element\ 



10 

Alderton NW of Grittleton. 

1086 in Aldritone, Aldrinfone DB; 1194 de Aldrintoh Rot. 
Cur.; 1261 Audinton Br. Mus.; Edv. I Aldrynton, {in) Al- 
drintone ib.; c. 1290 Aderinton T. Eccl. ; early 14th cent. 
Audrinton TN; 1316 Aldrynton FA; 1428 Aldnjngton ib.; 
1432 Alderington E. Pat.; 1675 Aldrington Br. Mus. 

The first element evidentlj" contains originallj^ the patro- 
nymic of a p. n. beginning with Eald- (Angl. Aid-) and 
with a second member beginning with r. Only one name 
of this kind is on record in OE, viz. Ealdred, but there 
may also have existed a p. n. '^'Ealdric. Alderton is conse- 
quently to be derived from '•'Ealdredinga (or possibly ^^Eald- 
ricinga) tun. A contraction has taken place in this name 
of exactly the same kind as in Cholderton, Hilperton', see 
below. Loss of a medial -m^-suffix in pi. ns occurs very 
often. In the present case, this seems to have taken place 
far on in NE times, but it is just as commonly lost in ME; 
cf. e. g. Gorton (Cortington), Dinton, Hannington. For -i- 
as representing -ing- in DB see Zachrisson, Stud, i mod. 
sprakvet. Y, p. 11. 

All Cannings E of Devizes. 

1086 Ccminge DB; 1166 Chaningis Pipe li (or = Bishop's 
Cannings); 1185 Kanenges (hundr.) ib.; 1205 de Aldehmning 
E, Oblat; de Aldehamge Eot. Ch.; Aldechanlgg 11. L. CI.; 1296 
Allekanynges Pat. E; 1316 Alcanninges FA; 1428 Cannggges, 
Allecanynges FA. 

In OE times this place was certainly called simply 
'^Caningas (^'cet Caningum), this name including also Bi- 
shop's Cannings, the distinctive names being, as is most 
often the case, ME additions. "^Caningas is a plur. patronymic 
of a p. n. "^'Cana, recorded in DB [Ellis, Intr. II p. 64] in 
the latinized form Cano. The same name occurs in Can- 
nington, Soms. (1284 Caninton FA; 1315 Canyngtone C. Inq.). 

PI. ns of the present kind are discussed by Alexander 
[Essays & Studies II, p. 175 ff.]. According to him the 



11 

names in -ing {-inge) are derived from original oblique cases, 
either from the gen. plur. (with -helm, -tun etc. understood), 
or from the dat. plur^. 

The epithet was originally the ME adj. aid (= old), which, 
after the loss of d between two consonants coincided with 
all. For the AN ch as a representative of OE c {k) see 
Zachrisson, p. 32 f. 

AUington SE of Amesbury. 

1086 AUentone, Alentone DB; 1178? Aldintona Br. Mus.; 
1199 in AJdintoh Rot. Ch.; 1270 Alletona, Aldintona Ch. Id.; 
c. 1290 Aldyngton T. EccL; 1316 Aldynton FA; 1428 Aldyng- 
ton ib.; 1486 Aldyngton C. Inq. 

This name, like the following, goes back to ''"'JEllan (Allan'^) 
tun, or ""'-^Ellinga (Allinga) ttin. For JElla, Alia see under 
Alcombe. The inorganic d of some forms must be due to 
the influence of the numerous names beginning with Aid-. 

Aliington NW of Chippenham. 

1316 Alynton FA; 1397 in Alyngtone Br. Mus.; [n. d.] de 
Alyntone Reg. Malm. See preceding name. 

Aliington NE of Devizes. 

1086 Adelingtone DB; 1194 in Alingetoh Rot. Cur.; 1316 
Alington FA; 1324, 1428 Alyngton ib. 

From '■■'^delinga tun; cedeling = either a prince, member 
of a noble family, or a patronymic of the p. n. jEdel, 
^^dela (the latter being a pet-form of some name beginning 
Avith j^del-). Medial OE d is most often rendered by d in 
DB [Stolze § 38]; see also on this point Zachrisson, p. 
97 ff. 



^ In the present case, where the absence of s is merely occa- 
sional, the s-less forms may naturally just as well be explained 
as shortened forms, where the sign {^) (over the final g), repre- 
senting the ending -es, has been omitted (in the same way as 
the stroke (-) over y representing the following n has been left 
out in one of the FA forms). 



12 

Alton Barnes or Berners 
Alton Priors 



\ NW of Pewsey. 



1086 Aultone [= A. B.], Awlione [= A. P.] DB ; 1189 Aulton Br. 
Mus.; 1284 Aidton Ch. R; c. 1290 cle Aultone Berners, de Aid- 
tone Prioris T. Eccl. ; Edw. I in Aiveltnn' Berner E/Ot. H: 
early 14th cent. Aivelton Prioris TN; 1316 Aulton Bernes FA; 
1428 Aidton {Berners), Aulton Prioris ib. 

From '■■ea-ivyll-tun. A little tributary of the East Avon 
rises here. The WS compound ■'■'■ea-wyU{e) [Angl. *w-wcell, 
''^r£-weU] is to be taken quite literally as 'the source of a brook 
or river , not simply 'river as Middendorff states, p. 9. Cf. 
Alton, Hants, (near the source of the River Wey), which 
occurs as jEweltune CS no. 390. For the initial a see 
p. 5 (under Ablington). 

'Berner' is an AN family name (see Bardslej^), and 'Bar- 
nes' in the present case can hardly be anything but a 
corruption of this name. Alton Priors formerly belonged 
to tlie monaster}^ of St. Swithun at Winchester; see Ch. li 
II, p. 288. 

Alton N of Amesbury. 

1086 Eltone DB; 1281 Alletona Br. Mus.; c. 1290 de Aletone 
T. Eccl.; 1310 Aleton Ch. R; 1316 Aleton FA; 1361 Aleton 
CI R; 1428 Alton FA. 

Probably from ''-''JEllan tun, the first element being the 
gen. of the p. n. jElla, for which see Muller, p. 45. For 
the representation of OE ce by e in DB see Stolze § 4. 

Alvediston SSE of Tisbury. 

1166 de Alfwietestoh Ahbtisse Pipe R; King John Alvi- 
theston xAbbr. Plac; 1222 Alvitheston Phillipps' ped. fin.; 
1271 Alvedeston C. Inq. ; 1287 Alhedeston ib.; c. } 290 Alve- 
destone T. Eccl.; 1312 Alvedstone Cal. inq. da.; 1336 Alfe- 
deston Cal. Inq.; 1359 Alvidcston CI. R; 1428 Alveston 
(twice) FA. 



13 

The first element was certainly the p. n. '■■^Ifhcep, re- 
corded as Alfeth in CS no. 641, and as jElfeth in DB 
[Ellis, Intr. II p. 5]. The transition of the medial -fh- into 
the corresponding explosive is in the present case hardly 
to be explained either as an AN substitution or as a dia- 
lectal development [see Zachrisson p. 97 ff.]. It may rather 
be due to the difficulty of pronouncing two fricative con- 
sonants next to each other {th and s). Cf. the transition 
of gh > g in Brigmerston, y>h in Brixton, th > t in Ratfyn. 
As to t for th in the Pipe R form see Zachrisson, p. 115, 
foot-note, h for v, a not uncommon mistake in ME mss. 
as well as the reverse, is due to the similaritv between 
these letters. 

According to Jones, p. 204, this place was included in 
the large estate at Chalk [Bower Ch. and Broad Ch.] which 
in 955 was granted to the abbey at Wilton (CS no. 917). 
Hence the distinctive name in Pipe E». 

Amesbury or Ambresbury [eimzhdri]. 

858 -^Amhereshurg CS no. 495; 880 — 85 -feet Amhres hyrig 
ib. no. 553; 932 -fAmhreslmrch ib. no. 691; 972 -fhamhre.b' 
huruh ib. no. 1286; [995] -fAmhresbyri AS Chr. [F]; 1086 
Amblesherie, Ambresherie DB; 1205 Ambresber' CaJ. Rot. Ch.; 
1215 Amhresbyre Macray ; 1223 Ambresbirie Osmund; 1227 
Amesbury, Ambresburi Ch. R; 1242 Aumberbiry Pat. R; 
1248 Ambesbire Macray; 1265 Ambrebiry Pat. E>; 1267 Am- 
besbyre Macray; Ainbrosebury Cal. Rot. Ch.; 1270 Aunbres- 
byry Pat. E.; 1290 Ameshury Ch. R; 1322 Great Aumbres- 
buri C. Inq.; 1331 Aunbresbury (four times) ib.; 1335 Am- 
bresburye Magna Cal. Inq.; Amesbury Ch. E; 1428 Magna 
Ambresbury, Parva A. FA; 1485 Amysbury C. Inq.; 1487 
Ammesbury ib.; 1495 Ambesbury ib. 

This place is traditionally connected with the Roman 
leader Aurelius Ambrosius mentioned in Gildas, Beda, 
Nennius, and Geoffrey of Monmouth. Although a derivation 
of this pi. n. from Ambrosius would not infringe philological 



14 

laws, yet there is much doubt about such an etymology. 
Tradition is after all too unreliable to have much weight 
in deciding the etymology of a pi. n. But there is no 
doubt that the first element was a p. n., and if this 
name was Germanic, it may have been Eammer (< ■^Eanmer) 
or possibly Eanheorht. The second element was OE byri^ 
(dat. of hurh). As to I for r in one of the DB forms see 
Zachrisson, p. 142 ff. Other pi. ns with a similar first 
element are Amberley, Sussex (see Roberts, PL Ns of Sussex), 
Amhrosden Oxfs. (see Alexander, PL Ns of Oxfs.), Omhersley, 
Worcs. (see Duignan, PL Ns of Worcs.), and Amhrosetown, 
Wexford. 

Anstey or Ansty SSE of Tisbury. 

1086 Ancstige DB; 1224 Anesty Phillipps' ped. fin.; 1245 
Ansteya Macray; 1251 of Anesty e Ch. R; Edw. 1 Anestye, 
Ahiestye Eot. H; 1316 Anestigh FA; 1428 (in) Anstye, (de) 
Anstie ib. 

Originally "^'cet [pcem'\ ansU^an. The OE compound, ''^'ansfi^a, 
which is only found in oblique cases, meant 'narrow path 
(passage)' [cf . OW Scand. einstigi = 'a path, so narrow that only 
one can pass']. In the Epinal Glosses the word occurs as a trans- 
lation of termofilas (see thermiphilce, Du Cange), consequently 
denoting ''a narrow passage between hills', but Middendorff's 
conclusion from this single case that it could only have 
that sense seems too hazardous to be trusted. In the case 
of the present name, there is no topographical evidence to 
support the latter meaning. As to the intrusive I in Alnc- 
stye see Zachrisson, p. 150. 

[Ashgrove SE of Shaftesbury (Dors.). 

This name has been inserted only on account of Thorpes 
identification of jEscgraf p. 443 with this place. There 
seems, however, nothing to support this statement. Ashgi'ove 
may be a comparatively new name, and its sense is in that 
case obvious.] 



15 

Ashley NE of Tetbuiy (Glos.). 

1086 Esselie DB; 1194 Esselega Eot. Cur.; 1222 Asseleg 
Macray; c. 1290 Ashle T. EccL; 1341 Asshesleghe Br. Mus. 
(prob. identical); [n. d.] de Hasselleye, de Asseleye, Esseleye, 
Aisseleye, de Eshleye Reg. Malm.; 1428 Asshele FA. 

Originally *cet [p<^m, p^re] cesc- lea^e fash-tree meadow') 
or "^cet uEscan lea^e, jEsca being probably a pet-formation 
of some p. n. beginning with jEsc-, of which there are a 
great number. OE leak, m. and f., is most common in pi. 
ns, in compounds as well as by itself. The OE nom. gives 
modern lea, leigli. 

Aiss- for Ass- is inverted spelling; see Luick, AngliaXYI, 
p. 505 ff. For the AN rendering of OE sc (/) with s, ss 
see Zachrisson, p. 37 f. 

Ashley near Box. 

Hen. Ill in Asseleye, in Hasseleye Br. Mus. ; 1428 Asshele FA. 
See above. 

Ashley, Great and Little NW of Bradford. 

1492 Aissheley Cal. Inq, ; 1494 Assheley C. Inq. 
See above. 

Ashtoti Gifford SE of Heytesbury. 

1247 Ayston C. Inq.; 1281 Aihston Oh. R; 1316 (de) Ashetone 
FA; 1327 of Asshetone, Aschtone, Asshton C. Inq.; 1357 Ash- 
tone Giffard Cal. Inq. 

Either from '^'cesc- tun or ''^'uEscan tun. ^Gifford' (Giffard) 
is an AN family name; see Hildebrand, p. 336. 

Ashton Keynes W of Cricklade. 

1086 Essitone DB; 1281 Aston, Ayston{e) C. Inq.; 1316 de 
Ashtone FA; 1404 Assheton Cal. Inq.; 1428 Assheton FA. 
See preceding name. 'Kej^nes' (Kaines) is a family name, 
according to Bardsley probably Norman. 

Ashton, West SE of Trowbridge. 
1256 in Westastoh R. fin. exc. ; 1485 West Aisshton, Ashton C. Inq. 



16 

There are three neighbouring Ashtons here, which cer- 
tainly were originally one and the same estate. The other 
two are called Rood Ashton and Steeple Ashton. For 
further information see Steeple Ashton. 

Atworth NW of Melksham. 
1001 jat Attemvrthe CD no. 706; 1316 de Atteivorthe FA; 
1324 Ateworth ib.; 1352 Aieworth Cal. Inq.; 14:02 AttewortJi 
CoteM FA; 1404 Little Cotels, alias Cotels Attevmrd Cat. AD; 
1428 Cotelatteivo7-d, Farva Atteivorfh FA; 1489 Atward C. 
Inq.; 1495 Atteivorthe Cotteles Atteivard ib. 

Originally '-Attcm tveorp {irorpj unirp, ivyrp). Atta is a 
p. n. which, apart from its occurrence in pi. ns, is recorded 
on English territory in LYD; see Miiller § 37. OFt weorp =^ 
'homestead', 'habitation wdth surrounding land^, 'property'. 
The termination -ivard indicates weakened stress. 'Cotel(s)' 
is according to Hildebrand, p. 334, a French family name. 

Many scholars would perhaps be inclined to derive the 
present name from an original '-''cet ]bd;m iveorde. Moorman, 
for instance, is of opinion that Attereliffe, W. R. of Yorks, 
goes back to OE ''^''wt pmn clife. There is, however, strong- 
reason to doubt an etymology of this kind, because there is 
not a single authenticated case of the total coalescence 
of the OE preposition and article with the pi. n. itself ^. 
The first element of Attercliffe can hardly have been any- 
thing but the p. n. Atta (r is intrusive as appears from the 
old forms quoted by Moorman). Cf Atherstone, Atherstone 
{-on-Stoiir), Warws., which contain the p. ns. Eadredy Eadric 
respectively (see Duignan, PL Ns of Warws.), Atherton, Lanes., 
probably containing the p. n. Atser (see Wyld), and Atte7i- 
horough, Notts., containing the p. n. Eada (see Mutschmann). 
If the OE prep, and article in question had possessed such 

^ Zachrisson, Anglia XXXIV, p. 350 f., calls attention to a 
few cases in which the final consonant of the OE article pdim 
> ME then has been prefixed to a pi, n. beginning with a vowel 
(although most of these names, in my opinion, may equally prob- 
ably have got their initial consonant from the prop. in). 



17 

great vitality as Moorman ascribes to them, they would 
certainl}^ have survived rather frequently in those modern 
pi. ns which consist of a single subst. 

Note. The places mentioned in CD no. 706 are, with two or 
three exceptions, located by Kemble in Dorset. It is, however, 
quite evident that several of them are situated in Wilts., viz. 
jAtte7iwrthe, yBradeforda (= Bradford-on-Avon), Brochme 
(= Broughton Gifford), jChaldfelde (= Chalfield), ■fCosehdm 
(= Corsham). yFarnleghe (= Monkton Farleigh), yHeselberi (Hazel- 
bury), and -fWitlege (= Whitley), all of which are situated at a 
short distance from each other. 

Avebury or Abury {ei{v)bdri) W of Marlborough. 

1086 de Avreherie DB; 1114 Aveshiria Cal. France; 1189 
Aveberia ib. ; 1194 Auebia Jiot. Cur.; 1227 Avehure Ch. E,; 
1232 Avehiri ib.; 1253 Avesberia ib. ; Hen. Ill Avene(s)bu7', 
[corrupt] Hot. H; 1256 Avesbyry Pat. R\ 1316 Avebury 
FA; 1404 Avesbury Cal. Inq. 

Originalh" "^cet Afan byri^, Afa being recorded as an OE 
p. n. In some of the ME forms an s has been inserted 
through the influence of pi. ns, the first elements of which 
have the strong gen. ending. The first r in the DB form 
stands for n, this substitution being due to AN influence 
(see Zachrisson, p. 141, where several analogous cases are 
given). 

Avon on the Lower Avon NE of Chippenham. 

688 (juxta f lumen) Avene {Abon, Avon) CS no. 71; 940 be 
Afene ib. no. 752; 1065 Auene (terra) CD no. 817; 1194 
de Auene Rot. Cur.; 1262 of Havene Ch. H. 

Avon is a Celtic word (abond) meaning 'stream', 'river'; 
see Stokes, p. 10, and Holder. An unetymological h initially 
before a vowel often occurs in the ME forms of Wilts, names, 
just as an initial h of the stem may have been omitted 
(cf. Etchilhampton, Hacklestone, Heddington, Hippenscombe, 
Oakhill, Upavon, etc.). As far as I have been informed, a 
certain irregularity in this respect exists in different parts 

2 E. Ekblom 



18 

of the county, but the misuse of initial h seems nowhere 
to be universal enough to form a dialectal characteristic; see 
also Kjederqvist §§ 23, 213. In many forms, however, the 
addition or loss of h may naturally as well be an AN feature. 

Axford ENE of Marlborough. 

1184 in AxeforcV Pipe R; 1217 Axeford Pat. E; 1226 Axe- 
ford Osmund; 1288 Axeford C. Inq. ; 1428 Axeford FA. • 

If the first element is Germanic^, there can only be one 
derivation: owing to the fact that the combination sh in 
East Wilts, is often represented by Tcs, x [basket often occurs 
as haxet, ask as ax (< OE acsian, see Kjederqvist § 210), 
cf. also Wexcomhe^ below] we are entitled to assume a p. n. 
'''Aska (< Scand. Aski) as the first element. Under the in- 
influence of the above-mentioned dialectal peculiarity, an 
original '^Askan ford would give Axford, in the same way 
as "west-cumh (after the loss of t) has given Wexcombe (the 
termination being retained even after the metathesis). 

Badbury SE of Swindon. 

955 ■\Baddchuri, |f/c Baddehorive OS no. 904 (prob. identical); 
1086 Badeherie DB; 1280 Baddehyr Ch. E; Edw. 1 Badde- 
hurij, Badehery Plac. Warr. ; 1324 Baddehury FA; 1330 
Baddehury Ch. E; 1428 Badehiiry FA. 

Originally '-^et Bad(d)an hyri^, Bad{d)a being probably 
a pet-formation of such names as Badufrijj (Beadufrip), 
Bad{u)/ieard [Bead{ii)heard], Badumiind; see Miiller, pp. 
46, 117. 

Bapton near Wylye. 

1220 Bahinton Phillipps' ped. fin.; 1311 Bahyngton C. 
Inq.; 1316 Bahington FA; 1329 Babeton C. Inq.; 1362 5a- 
beton Br. Mus.; 1413 Babbeton ib. 



^ This is most probably the case. There is certainly a river 
name Axe in England which is most likely Celtic, but the Kennet 
on which Axford lies is not known to have ever had any other 
name. 



19 

From "^Bahhan (or Bahhinga) tun, Babha being an OE 
p. n. ; cf. Baverstock. h has become unvoiced through assi- 
milation with the following t. 

Barbury (Castle) E of Broad Hinton, 

[556] cet Beran hyrig AS Chr. ms. E [possibly identical] ; 
1252 Berebyre Br. Mus.; 1428 Berhury FA. 

The place ^vhere Cynric and Ceawlin fought against the 
Britons in 556 is located by Thorpe and Plummer (in their 
editions of AS Chr.) at Barbury Camp, Wilts. Whether this is 
correct or not is doubtful, but it is most probable that the 
original form ot Barburv was the same as that of the AS Chr. 
*Bera is probably a hypocoristic form of some p. n. be- 
ginning with Ber- e. g. Beruidf (in LVD, see Miiller, p. 92), 
''^Berweald {Beruoldus Ellis, Intr. II, p. 295); but it may 
perhaps also have existed as an independent name (applied 
to a man famed for his strength). The same name occurs 
in ^tberanforda CS no. 264. 

'Castle^, which is the general Avord for ancient protective 
earthworks and hill forts, refers to the ancient fortifications 
here, remnants of which are still to be found. There are 
a great number of such 'Castles^ in Wilts, e. g. Bratton C.^ 
Liddington C, Oldburj^ C, Yarnbury C. 

Barford St. Martin W of Wilton. 

1086 Bereford DB; 1250 Bereford C. Inq.; 1286 Bereford 
Ch. E; (prob. identical); 1304 Berevord St. Martin ib.; 1316 
Bereford FA; early Edw. Ill Barford St. Martin Br. Mus.; 
1335 Bereford St. Martins C. Inq.; 1428 Ber(e)ford FA; 
1493 Berford St. Martin C. Inq. 

This name goes back either to * Beran ford (see preceding- 
name) or to ^ here- ford 'the ford by the barley(-field). *^St. 
Martin^ is the name of a church. 

Barford (Park) N of Downton. 

1086 Bereford DB; 1428 Bereford FA. 
See preceding name. 



20 

Bathampton, Great and Little [b9p{h)dmfn or hed(liyemfn] 
on the r. Wiley close to Fisherton Delamere. 

1194 de Bathatoh Rot. Cur.; 1229 Bathamton Pat. R\ 
c. 1270 Batham'pton Macray; early 14th cent. Bathamewily 
TN; 1316 Bathehampton FA; 1328 Bathamwyly C. Inq.; 
1367 Batametoune Wyley Phillipps' fines; 1402 Bathampton 
FA; 1428 Badampton ib.; c. 1430 Batampton Br. Mus. 

Hampton, which occurs so frequently both in compounds 
and alone in English pi. names, goes back either to OE 
ham-tun (this seems to be the most usual origin), which may 
have been analogous in meaning with OE ham-stede (home- 
stead), or to hean tune (dat.) [like Hampton, Worcs. which 
occurs as {xt) Hean tune CS no. 235]. In this case, how^ever, the 
low situation of the place excludes the latter possibility (cf. 
Becl:hampton, Ditchampton, Etchilhampton? below, in which 
-hampton has a quite exceptional origin). The pronunciation 
'^hedH- of the first element is due to Aveakened stress. Names 
in -hampton are generally stressed on the penultimate syllable. 

Whether the epithet Bath- formed part of the original 
name or not, it is impossible to say. 

Baverstock \b(EVd{r)stolc\ W of Wilton. 

968 (t)^^ Babanstoce Reg. Wilt.; lOSQ, BahestocheJ}^; 1230 
in Bahestoh' CI. R; c. 1290 BaUestol T. EccL; 1428 Bahe- 
stol FA. 

The first element is the p. n. Bahha, which occurs also 
in the adjacent Bapton. The late change oi h> v and the 
insertion of r may be due to the analogy of Laverstoclc, a 
parish not far from here (though the change oi h > v may 
be partly a dissimilatory process). 

Stoch as a first element in pi. ns is as a rule derived 
from OE stoc(c) [< prim. Germ. *stoMo-.z], e. g. OE stoc{c)- 
tun = 'an enclosure fenced in by stocks or posts' (in the 
same way as stdn-tun may denote 'an end. fenced in by 
stones'). 



21 

As a second element, however, and when occnrring 
uncompounded as a pi. n., in Avhich cases it also occurs 
as stolce, it certainly represents OE stoc [< prim. Germ. 
"^stolco-z] (stoke from the OE dat. form); the few OE references 
to this word, apart from pi. ns, are quoted by Napier, Trans. 
of the Phil. Soc. 1903—06, p. 323, and Swaen, Engl. Stud. 
37, p. 191. Note also (/ fader r) stolce, Ormulum 9778, and 
stohess (plur.) ib. 1049, 15694. The meaning of this word 
seems to have been much the same as OE Steele, stoiv (in 
Ormulum the word means 'placeV- 

Attention may here be called to the serious mistake in 
Bosworth-Toller (and Swaen) of assuming an OE stoc as the 
origin of stoclc, stolce; for even though the nom. form might 
have given NE stoclc (by shortening), the OE dat. form 
would never have given NE stolce, but ^stooh. It is also 
quite impossible to assume, as scholars generally do, an 
OE "^stoce as a dat. form of stoc{c), as double consonants 
could not be simplified in the spelling of oblique cases. 

Note. Middendorff s opinion (which seems to be adopted from 
Jellinghaus) that OE stoc{c) in pi. ns indicates *^eine Ortlichkeit 
mit den Resten eines abgeholzten Waldes^ can hardly be correct. 
It is obvious that OE stoc(c)-ivudu denotes a place where a 
wood had been cut down, in the same way as stoc(c)~leah may 
be "^a meadow with stumps of trees^ but there is no reason to 
assume that stoc{c) alone could have that sense. Nor is it 
possible to adopt the suggestion of Jellinghaus, Anglia XX 
p. 320, repeated in Forstemann, Ortsn. p. 896, that OE stoc{c) 
as a first element in pi. ns could mean *^Stamm\ "^Geschlecht , 
denoting that the place in question would be Mie Mutterstadt 
eines Distriktes'. 



^ Curiously enough, the element in question, which is so 
prevalent in Engl, place-nomenclature, seems to be entirely absent 
in the pi. ns of the other Germanic countries. For the few 
German names in which stock occurs as a second element or 
uncompounded, see Forstemann, Ortsn. p. 896. In Scand. pi. ns 
it does not seem to occur as a second element at all. For its 
further occurrence se e. g. Kygh, Forord og Indledn. p. 79. 



22 

Baycliff S of Horningsham. 

early Hen. Ill in Bayleclive Br. Mus.; 1316 de Baylies dyve 
FA; 1386 in Batjlesclyfe Cat. A. D.; 1428 Baileclyf FA. 

The most probable etymology is *Bea^cles (Bea^elan) cUf, 
Bea^el{a) being a diminutive form of *Bea^a, a pet-form of 
such. p. ns as Bea^mtmd, Bea^stan: see Miiller, p. 78. 

Note. Baildon, W. Riding of Yorks., probably contains the 
same first element as the name above. Moorman's suggestions 
on this name seem too improbable to be trusted. Baycliff, 
Lanes, is of a quite different origin: see Wyld. 

Baydon N of B,amsbury. 

1146 Beidona Macray; 1226 Beidon Osmund; 1294 Beydon 
Ch. K; 1316 Bedo7t FA. 

I suggest an original '^Bea^an dun. For '^'Bea^a see pre- 
ceding name. OE dun (NE down) is generally supposed to 
be of Celtic origin. Bedon (FA) may be an example of the 
AN spelling habits of rendering ai, ei by e, mentioned 
by Zachrisson, Stud, i mod. sprakvet. V. p. 16. 

Baynton NE of Westbury. 

1185 de Beinton' Pipe E,; 1330 Benton CI. E., C. Inq.; 1428 
Beynton FA; [n. d.] de Beyntone Reg. Malm. 

This name seems to contain the same first element as 
Baydon and is consequently to be derived from "^Bea^an tun. 
For the retention of -n- cf. Binchnoll, Cadnam, Chippenham, 
Harnham, Mildenhall, Newnton, etc., below. The fact that 
OE -an in these names had two different functions — being 
in some cases the gen. ending of a weak p. n.^ in others 
the dat. ending of an adjective — was naturally in suffi- 
cient to prevent a development on similar lines. 

Beanacre [hi(j)neiJcd(r)] N of Melksham. 

1261 Benacr^ E fin. exc; 1286 Benacre Ch. E; Edw. I 
Benakere Eot. H; Beneacre Abbr. Plac. 



23 

'Bean-field\ OE cecer meant 1) 'a piece of tilled land, a 
field'; 2) "^a definite measure of land, originally as much as 
a yoke of oxen could plough in a day' (NED). The OE 
compound %eanland (heajilcmdes) occurs in CD no. 724. 

Beckhampton ( — ) near Aveburj^ 

1086 Bachentunc DB: 1199? de Bachamtoh Rot. Cur.; 
Hen. Ill Bechampton Abbr. Plac; 1240 — 45 de Bachamptone 
Macray; 1266 Bechcwipton Pat. R; 1314 Bachamptone C. 
Inq.; 1316 Bahhampton FA; 1428 Bachampton ib.; 1485 
BaJcehamton C. Inq.; 1493 BaJcehampton ib.; 1596 BacTc- 
hampton Br. Mus. 

Originall}^ '^Bac(c)an tun, Bac{c)a being an OE p. n., re- 
corded in LYD, see Mliller, p. 46. -an+tun was, however, 
soon associated with the common name element ham{2))ton, 
and, in accordance with such names, the stress has here 
also been shifted to the syllable -ham-; hence BacJc-> BecJc-. 

Bedwyn, Great and Little SW of Hungerford (Berks.). 

778 (■f)Bedetvinde, {•\)in hedeivindan CS no. 225; 803—805 
{-\)Bedeivinde ib. no. 324; 880 — 85 {'\)cet Bedeivindanih.no. 
553, p. 178; {^)Bedeivynde ib. no. 554, p. 182; 968 {^)Bede- 
wmde, (to) Bed{e)uuindan ib. no. 1213 (pro"b. identical); ^thel- 
red {'\)Bedeuuinde CD no. 1312; (n. d.) {'\)Bedewinde CD no. 
941 (possibly identical); 1086 Bedvinde (twice), ad Bedvine 
DB; 1158 of Bedetvinde Osmund; 1177 Esthedewinda (= Little 
Bedw.) Pipe R; 1194 Bedewinde Rot. Cur.; 1199 Bede- 
wyna Cat. Rot. Ch.; 1230—40 Bedeivind Macray; 1234 
BideivhuV CI. R; 1310 Esthedewynde C. Inq.; 1376 Byd- 
tvynde Cal. Inq.; 1441 Westhedwijnd Br. Mus.; 1484 Bede- 
iven ib. 

This can hardly be anything but the plant-name hedwine 
or hedwindy which exists as a dialect word in Wilts, and 
other southern counties indicating some common species of 
'Convolvulus'; see EDD. cf. Swedish vinda, German Winde. 
This was consequently a place, where a rich growth of this 



24 

plant was found. It seems as if the sing, form of the word 
had been used here originally, wliich in that case must have 
been taken collectively (cf. Bremhill). The loss of final d 
after I, n is characteristic of this dialect; see Ellis, p. 42 f., 
Kjederqvist, p. 101. Contrary to Baddeley, p. 17, I take 
Bedwins, Glos. to be of the same origin. 

Note. On account of the etymology of Bedtvyn given above 
it is evident that Plummer's identification of Biedan heafde 
(AS Chr. A. D. 675) with this place must be erroneous. 

Beechin^stoke ESE of Devizes. 

1086 Bichenestoch DB; c. 1290 BichenestoJc T.'Eccl.; 1316 ^e 
StoJce FA; 1428 in BychenestoJce, in StoJce, de BechynstoTce 
ib. ; 1442 Bychyngstohe Cal. Inq. 

From an original "^cet Byc(c)inges (or ''^Byc(c)inga) stoce, 
Byc{c)ing being the regular patronymic of the OE p. n. Buc{c)a. 
The long vowel in the first syllable of the modern form is 
certainly due to popular etymology (the name having been 
connected with NE beech). 

Bemerton [bemd{r)t'n] WNW of Salisbury. 

1086 Bimertone, in Bermentone DB; 1287 Bymerton C. Inq.; 
c. 1290 Bymfone T. Eccl. ; 1300 Beomertonam (Lat. ace.) 
Ch. R; 1316 Bumerton FA; 1324 Bymerton C. Inq.; 1326 
Bymerton Pat. R; 1402, 1428 Bymerton FA; 14:93 Bemerton 
C. Inq. 

The original form was most probably ^Beornmceres tun, 
Beornmcer being a p. n. found on an AS coin of the time 
of King Alfred. The u- and /y-vowels are to be explained 
as follows. It is a known fact that OE eo is sometimes in 
ME rendered by u (AN spelling) [also by o, oe], which are 
taken to represent the transitional sound [oe] between 
OE eo and ME e (OE bcorn occurs occasionally in ME as 
burn, deorc as dure, etc.) see Biilbring, Bonner Beitr. zur 
Angl. XV: vii, Schlemilch pp. 32, 38. The erroneous use of 
ME // must be due to the presence of this u, which has 



25 

been assumed by the scribe to represent OE y (of. ME 
hyrn < OE beorn, clyrh < OE deorc). 

The i in Bimertone (DB) must be a mistake for e, as eo is 
not otherwise known to represent i in DB, and n for r in the 
other DB form, if not a mere error, is to be explained as 
an AN substitution ; see Zachrisson, p. 141 ff. 

Bentley Wood E of Salisbury. 

1178? Bentlesivuda Br. Mus.; 1224 Bentlewud E. L. CI.; 
Hen. Ill Bentleivode Rot. H; 1270 Bentellestuod, Bentelivoda 
Ch. R. 

Bentley certainly goes back to an original '''^'cet [pt^m, §cere\ 
beonet-lea^e ; cf. Bentley, Worcs. {cet Beonetlceaye OS no. 
1087); Bentley, Suffolk (Benetleia DB, Benetlei TN). OE 
beonet (NE bent) is only recorded in pi. ns (see ""bent" NED). 

Berwick Basset {barik, beriJc) N of Avebury. 

1206 Bereivye Br. Mus.; 1221 BerewyJc, Beretvich Macray; 
1231 Berewic Ch. E; 1271 Bereivyl C. Inq. ; 1316 de Ber- 
loiJce FA; 1325 BerwyJc Basset Ch. E. 

Berwick is a very common pi. n. all over England and 
goes back to OE beretvlc, a compound of &ere =^ barley' and 
ivlc = '(dwelling-)place', 'habitation'. A bereivlc may there- 
fore have been either 'a barley farm' or 'a shed in which 
barley was stored'. In NED berivick, beretuick is stated 
to be obsolete and is translated by 'demesne farm'. 
Jones, p. XXI points out another sense which the word 
seems to have had in the time of Domesday. On the ground 
of such expressions in DB as 'Ad hoc manerium j)ertinent 
4 beretvicce (I, 128 b) and Ad hoc man. jacuit et jacet una 

Berewica (I, 129 b), he takes the word to have 

indicated 'a small farm, subordinate to a manor'. The ex- 
plosive in tvick is due to the OE inflected cases; see Cor- 
nelius, and Bjorkman, Loanwords, p. 145. 

'Basset(t)' is an AN family nam.e. Other estates in Wilts., 



26 

which have been in possession of members of this family, are 
Compton B., Easton B., Winterbourne B., and Wootton B. 

Berwick St. James ENE of Wylye. 

C. 1190 Bereivyh Sancti Jacohi Macray; 1316 de Berewike 
FA; 1324 Berkvyl ib. ; 1428 Berwijl {Sancti Jacohi) ib. 

Berwick St. John E of Shaftesbury (Dors.). 

1267 de Berewylce S. Johannis Macray; 1316 de Bereivyhe 
FA; 1428 BerewyTc Sancti Johannis ib. 

Berwick St. Leonard E of Hindon. 

1428 Berivyk Sancti Leonardi FA. 

The distinctive names of these three places refer to 
churches. 

Beversbrook [hijvd(r)sbruk] NE of Calne. 

1086 Bevresbroc, BrevreshroJc DB; 1240 — -45 Beverhroh Mac- 
ray; 1316, 1428 {de) BeveresbroJce FA; 1437 (of) Beveris- 
brolce Cat. A. D. 

Originally '^cet beofores broce, broc referring to a little 
tributary of the Marden, now called *^Fisher's brook'. The 
first r in Brevresbroc (E)B) is merely orthographic. 

Biddestone [bidsfn] W of Chippenham. 

1086 Bedestone DB; 1181 de Bedeston Pipe E; 1215 in 
Buddeston R. L. CI.; 1216 de Betesdoh ib.; 1258 Biideston 
C. Inq.; 1285 Budisdene Cal. Rot. Ch.; 1288 Byddiston 
Dugdale; Edw. I Budeston Br. Mus.; 1307 Biideston C. 
Inq.; 1316 Budeston FA; 1321 Butteston Fine R. [prob. 
identical]; 1351 Buduston Br. Mus.; 1428 Butteston FA; 
1464 Buddeston Br. Mus. 

Probably from ^''Bydan tun (with a later substitution of 
strong for weak gen.; see Alexander, Mod. Lang. Rev. VII, 
p. 70). For the p. n. Byda, which is recorded in LVD, 
see Mliller, p. 49. 



27 

The c of the first syllable in some of the earliest forms 
above stands for i and may, on account of the early date 
of the references, be due to French influence (see Zachris- 
son, Stud, i mod. sprakvet. V, p. 10). It is to be noticed 
in this connection, however, that there also exists in different 
parts of the county a well-marked tendency to change i into 
e, and even many of the ME forms that show this change may 
be explained as having been affected by this tendency (cf. 
e. g. Brinkworth, Chicklade, Chisbury, Chisenbury, Chitterne, 
Chittoe, Fittleton, Grittleton, Lydiard, Smithcot, Tedworth). 

The change from d> t in two of the forms above may 
be due to assimilation with the following s (the medial e 
having been syncopated). 

It is obvious that confusion of -ton, preceded by -s-, and 
-stone must be very frequent in Engl. pi. ns. 

Bincknoll SE of Wootton Bassett. 

1086 in Bechenhalle DB ; 1251 Benecnoll Ch. E; 1279 
BenJcnoUe Br. Mus. ; 1284 BenJcnoU R Pat. ; early 14th cent. 
Brencnoll TN; 1316 de Benhnelle FA; 1362 Beneknoll, BienJc- 
nolle CI. R; 1367 BiJcenoUe Cal. Inq. ; 1428 (in) BienTcnoUe, 
de BrenhnoUe FA; c. 1430 ByngJcnoll Br. Mus. 

The DB form suggests an original ^'Beccan heall. OE heaU = 
'palace*, 'residence'. Becca, which also appears in the local 
names Beccan ford{a) CS no. 309, Beccan lea ib. no. 553, and 
beecan leahe ib. no. 1282 p. 586, was the name of a king in 
Widsith. This is another example in which the OE gen. 
-n is retained. The development has then been as follows: 
After the loss of e, metathesis has taken place so as to 
give a form '^'Benkolle (the second syllable weakened), which 
at a time must have existed side by side with "^Behnolle 
{BiJcenoUe Cal. Inq.). Out of these two forms has then arisen 
a contaminated form Benhiolle, BincTcnolI. For the transi- 
tion of e> i see Morsbach § 109. Brenk- for Benh- is 
probably due to association with the subst. hrenJc, hrink. 



28 

Bishop's Cannings NE of Devizes. 
1086 Cainingham DB; 1091 Caninges Osmund; 1139? Can- 
enghis Macray; 1146 Canninges ib.; 1148 Caningas ib.; 
1161 Canengis Br. Mus.; 1173 Caning Osmund; 1226 Kaning 
ib. ; Edw. I iyi Kaningge Plac. Warr. ; 1286 Caningges Macray; 
1294 Canyng Episcopi Oh. E; 1296 Canygges Bishop sVsit. B,; 
1316 Canynges FA; 1428 Cannyng ib. ; 1491 Bishops Can- 
yng es C. Inq. 

See All Cannings. The badly spelt DB form may 
naturally represent an older ^Caninga helm, but it may also 
be a corruption of an OE dat. plur. form ^cet Caningum. 
The term 'Bishop's^ refers to the Bishop of Sarum, the chief 
tenant here in the time of Domesday. 

Bishopstone E of Swindon. 
1227 Bissopestun Osmund; c. 1290 de Bissopestone T. EccL; 
1294 Bisshopeston Oh. E.; 1300 Bysshopeston ib. 

Originally %isc{e)opes tun. This is another example, in 
which -5'- has later on been added to the suffix, whence -stone. 

Bishopstone S of Wilton. 
1227 Bissopeston Gh. U; 1243 Bissopiston Pat. E; 1316^^5- 
shopeston FA; 1324 de Byschopestone ib.; 1428 Bysshopeston, 
Buschopeston ib.; 1534 Biissheton Br. Mus. 

See preceding name. For the form Biissheton cf. Bushton, 
below. 

Bishopstrow SE of Warminster. 
1086 Biscopestreu DB; 1144 bissoppestreu Eound, Ancient 
ch.; 1194 Bisuppestru, Bissupestru Eot. Cur.; Hen. Ill 
Bissopestru Br. Mus.; 1236 Bisshopestre Ch. R; 1270 in 
Byscoppestreive ib.; c. 1290 de Bissoppestrowe, Bissopestre 
T. EccL; 1300 Troiue Pat. E. (prob. identical); Edw. I 
Bissupestreo Br. Mus.; 1316 de Bisshoppestroive FA; 1365 
by Busshepestrowe CI. E. 

From %ise(e)opes treoiv (treotv here probably = cross). 
Jones, p. 199, is of opinion that a cross may have stood 



29 

here as a memorial of Aldlielm, the well-known abbot of 
Malmesburv and bishop of Sherborne, to whom the chnrch 
is dedicated. OE -treow has become -troiv by change of stress. 

Blackland SE of Calne. 

1194 Blakelancl Rot. Cur.; 1218 BlalcelandMB.CTSiy', c. 1290 
de Blochelonde, Blakelond T. EccL; 1316 de BlacMonde¥A; 
1428 BlacMond ib. 

Originall}^ ^'pcet bidce land (OE hlcec and Mac being help- 
lessly confused with each other). This name can hardly 
denote anything but 'a tract, covered with dark forests\ 
Guest, p. 254, points out the great probability of a line of 
forest having stretched almost uninterruptedh^ from the 
extensive Bradon forest in north Wilts, to Selwood forest 
in the south-west. Blackland and Blackmore (below) in that 
case certainly formed part of this wooded district. 

Blackmore NE of Melksham. 

1338 de Blakliemore Pat. R. 

This name answers to an OE *se hldca mor; OE mor = 
^2L tract of waste (damp) ground". See preceding name. 

Blunsdon, Broad and Blunsdon St. Andrew N of Swindon. 

1086 Blontesdone, Bluntesdone Dl^ ; 1171 de Bluntes den Pipe 
R; 1207 m Bluntesdon Rot. Ch. ; 1262 Brodebluntesdon C. 
Inq. ; early 14th cent. Rangindehluntesdon TN; 1316 de 
Bhmtesdone Sancti Leonardi, B. Sancti Andree FA; 1326 
Blountesdon C. Inq.; 1328 Blontesdone ib.; 1379 Blontes- 
don Sci. Andree Br. Mus.; 1428 Blontesdon^ de Blu7itesdone 
FA; 1650 Blountesdon, Blundeston Br. Mus. 

The first element is, no doubt, the gen. of the French 
p. n. Blund {Blond, Blont, Blunt) [< med. Lat. hlundus, 
Uondus]: see Hildebrand, p. 331. This name, which occurs 
at a later date as a familv name in Wilts, as well as in 
other parts of England, is not to be confused Avith the W. 



30 

Scand. nickname Blundr (from the subst. hlundr = slumber). 
The termination is OE dun. 

The distinctive term in TN indicates 'situation on a steep 
slope^; cf. Hanging Langford. Hangindehluntesdon may 
be identical with the two farms in Blunsdon which are 
now called "^The Hangings^ ^St. Andrew' is the name of a 
church. 

Boscombe SE of Amesbury. 

1086 BoscumU {tw\cii)J)B; 1178? BoscumbaBi\M\\^.\ 1199 
in Borscumbe, in Boxcumh Rot. Cur.; 1218 — 28 Boscumhe 
Macray; 1270 Boscimiba Ch. R; 1286 Boscumhe ih.; Edw. I 
de Borscumhe Rot. H; c. 1290 Borscumbe, Borscumbe T. 
EccL; 1328 Borscombe Phillipps' fines: 1362 Borcscombe 
Cal. Inq. ; 1364 Borescombe (several times) CI. R; 1386 
Borscombe Cal. Inq.; 1428 Boscombe FA; 1540 Borescombe 
Dugdale. 

Judging from the DB form and the other forms without 
r, it would seem as if the name contained the OE p. n. 
Bosa, occurring among other places in LVD, but on the 
other hand it cannot be a mere chance that r is found in so 
many ME forms. An independent p. n. which would fit in 
here is certainly not on record, but it seems not improbable 
that "^Bora might have been used in OE times as a nick- 
name of a ^horn-hora\ ^mund-bora\ ^ sweord-bora\ etc. Bos- 
combe may therefore be derived from '^Boran cumb (with a 
later substitution of strong for weak gen. ending, and assi- 
milation of r to s). Cf. the local '\to Boresburghe CS nos. 
34, 563, '\on bores tvelle ib. no. 776. Boxeumb (T. Eccl.) 
may have been affected by the same dialectal influence 
that gave x in Axford and Wexcombe. 

Note. Kemblo's identification of *hotes cumb CD no. 396, 
mentioned among the boundaries of the land at (Steeple) Lang- 
ford on the Wiley, with this place cannot possibly be correct. 



31 

Bottlesford "W of Pewsey. 

892 "fto hotan wcelle CS no. 567; 933 to botan ivylle CS 
no. 699. 

Hoare, in his edition of Reg. Wilt., has called attention 
to the probability that the modern Bottlesford is situated 
at the place to which these two ancient names refer, and 
there seems to be really no doubt at all about this identity. 
The original sense was thus *^Bota's welF, Bota being probabh^ 
a pet-form of such names as Botwine, Botiuulf^ etc. ; see 
MuUer, p. 48. -ivmlle CS no. 567 is not an original spelling 
[in OE ivceU{e) is the Angl. equivalent of WS tviell{e), tvyU{e); 
see Biilbring § 175]. At what time -ford was added I have 
not been able to find out. The insertion of -.S'- is due to the 
influence of pi. ns containing a first element with a gen. s. 

Bowden SW of Calne. 

1371 Bouedon Cat. A. D. 

Either from '^Bu^an dun, or from '■^'Bofan dun, Bu^a, 
Bo fa being OE p. ns, here probably denoting the same Buga 
(Bo fa) as occurs in the adjoining Botvood (see below). For 
the development of '^Bofan dun into Bowden cf. Coulston, 
below\ The fact that the place is situated on a plateau 
proves that the second element was originally dun. 

Bower Chalk SW of Broad Chalk. 

955 -fcBt Cheolcum, -fwt Cheolcum CS no. 917 ; 974 -fCheolca (Lat. 
form), -fto Cheolcan ib. 1304; 1086 Chelche DB (including 
also Broad Ch.); 1175 de Chelhe Pipe Ji (or = Broad Ch.), 
1226 in Chalk R. L. CI. (or = Broad Ch.); c. 1290 ChelJc T. 
Eccl. (or = Broad Ch.); 1316 de Burchalke FA; 1377 Bour- 
chalh Phillipps' fines; 1428 BorchalJcYA; 14:5b BurghchalJce 
Cal. Inq. ; 1476 Burgchalke ib.; 1481 Bery ChalJce ib. 

The CS forms above (which, no doubt, also refer to Broad 
Chalk) cannot possibly be correctly spelt. They certainly 
stand for *Cealc, *cet (p^m) Cealcum [='the chalk-down(s)']. 
Bower and Broad Chalk are situated in the so-called White 



32 

Chalk district, for the extent of which see Heath, p. 17. 
Clieolcan CS no. 1304 no doubt represents the OE dat. plur. 
The DB form iinphes a late OE '^xelCy see Biilbring § 314. 
The phonetic value of initial cli in DB before e and i is 
usually [k\\ see Zachrisson, p. 34. In addition to the present 
DB form there are, however, several instances in this treat- 
ise of die-, chi-f for OE (tfe), (tfi); see Chaddenwicke, Chedg- 
low, Cheverell, Chilmark, Chippenham, Chisbury, Chisen- 
bury, Chisledon. The spelling che-, chi- in question seems 
consequently not to be quite so uncommon as appears from 
Zachrisson's statement, p. 25. 

The distinctive name was originally ME hurgh (< OE 
bMrh) which has later on been confused with hour, hotver. 
For this confusion cf. Burton, below. Bower Chalk appears 
to have been the site of an ancient camp. 

Bowood SW of Calne. 

13th cent. Borvoda Liber rub.; 1319 Boueivode Pat. H. 
From "^Bu^an wudu or *Bofan wudu; see Bowden. 

Box N of Bradford. 

1144 Bocza Round, Ancient ch. (identical ace. to the editor); 
1181 La Boxe Pipe li; late 12th cent. La hoxa Br. Mus. ; 
Hen. Ill Boxa ib.; 1249 in Boxle C. Inq.; 1258 La Boxe 
ib.; 1316 de Boxe FA. 

OE hox (== box-tree). This word occurs in several Engl, 
pi. ns. Bocza and Boxle seem to represent an older "^box- 
ham and "hox-leah respectively. 

For the French def. article in English pi. ns see Zachris- 
son, Anglia XXXIV. 

Boyton SE of Heytesbury. 

1086 Boientonc DB; 1130—35 Bointon Osmund; 13th cent. 
Bointoyie Liber rub.; 1252 Boyton Ch. 11; Edw. I Boijnton 
Eot. H; 1316 Boyton FA. 

From *Boian tun, Boia (Boi^a) being a Continental p. n. 
of Celtic origin; see Forssner, p. 51. 



33 

Bradenstoke [hreid'nstouk] SW of Wootton Bassett. 

1086 Bradenestocli, StocJie (prob. identical) DB 69 c; 1203 Bra- 
denestoke B>ot. Cli.; 1204 Bradenestoh R.\j. Pat.; 1232 Bradene- 
sfoJc Ch. E,; 1285 BradenestocJc, in Bradenestolce ib.; 1290 
Bradestoh CI. R; 1318 BradestoTc Pat. E,; 1339 Bradinstoh 
CI. R; 1487 of Bradnestoke C. Inq. ; l^^b of Bradenestoke \h. 
It seems quite certain that the original name of this 
place was simply *6e^ (p^m) stoce (for OE stoc, see Baver- 
stock), which became Bradenstoke later because of its situa- 
tion in the Bradon (Braden) forest (see Braydon, below). 

Bradfield SW of Malmesburv. 

1086 Bradefelde DB; 1428 Bradefeld FA. 

Originally ^'se hrada feld ('the wide field'). In connection 
w^ith this name attention may be drawn to a strange mistake 
in Wyld, pp. 25, 297, where Brad- in pi. ns is explained 
from an uninflected OE hrad- with shortening of a be- 
fore the -(i, followed by another consonant, and Broad- from 
an inflected form. There is no evidence for such a state- 
ment. The most natural and only possible way is to 
assume an original definite form for both cases. If we 
start with an early ME Bradefeld (< OE ^se hrada feld), 
then either the a (in an open syllable) is shortened in 
accordance wdth Luick's theory, or, on the other hand, if 
the medial -e- was lost before this happened, the a would 
still be shortened because of its position before two con- 
sonants (cf. Aldbourne). The forms in Broad- are on the 
other hand due to the influence of the independent adjec- 
tive. In the same incorrect way are explained Lang- and 
Long- in pi. ns (Wyld, p. 367). 

Bradford(-on-Avon) NW of Trow^bridge. 

[652] cet Bradan forda he Afne AS Chr. [A] ; 705 ■\Bradanford 
{-\Bradeneforde) CS no. 114; 1001 -feet Bvadeforda CD. no. 

3 E. Ekblovi 



34 

706; 1086 Bradeford DB; 1130 Bradeford H. Pipe R; 
Hen. Ill Bradeford Br. Mus.; 1816 Bradford FA. 
No comments needed. 

Bradley, North S of Trowbridge. 

c. 1291 de Bradelei/e T. Eccl; 1316, 1428 Bradele FA. 

From an original ''-'cet pd:m (pcerc) hradan lea^e; (OE leah = 
meadow, arable land). 

Bratton ENE of Westbury. 

1249 Bratton C. Inq.; 1255 in Brettou R. fin. exc. ; 1256 
Bretton Pat. E.; 1257? (versus) Bratthonam Macray; 1267 
Bretton Pat. E; 1275 Bratton C. Inq.; 1304 Bratton Ch. E; 
early 14tli cent. Bretton TN; 1316 de Brattone FA. 

Undoubtedly from *se hrada tun. The forms with e, if 
not merely spelling mistakes, may be explained as due to 
association with the corresponding ME subst. hrede = 
'breath'; cf. Lindkvist, p. 28, foot-note^. 

Braydon E of Malmesbury. 

688 {silva) -fBradon CS no. 70; 796 (silva) •\Braden ib. no. 
279; 901 •\Bradene{weye) ib. no. 586; (circa) Bradenam 
Asser; [905] on Bradene AS Chr. [A]; on Brcedene ib. [D]; 
1065 -fBradon CD no. 817; 1230 (forest of) Braden Br. Mus.; 
1286 de Bradon CI. E; 1281 (forest of) Braden(e) C. Inq.; 
1828 Braden Ch. E; 1364 of Bradenne CI. E. 

This name was formerlj^ applied to the extensive wood- 
land which occupied nearly the whole of the north of Wilts. 
(for its boundaries see Akerman, Archa3ologia XXXVII). 
Braydon cannot possibly be derived from ''-'seo hrade diin 
(or dene)j as the Parker ms. [A] of AS Chr. in that case 
would certainl)^ have shown that form. The first element 
is no doubt of Celtic origin, and I am even inclined to 
believe that -dene of the OE forms above stands for an 



•"■ Mr. J. C. Loiigstaff has certainly informed me that a lends 
to e in the west Wilts, dialect, but that this tendency is not 
well marked. Bratton is at the present day pronounced hrceVn. 



35 

older -dun{e). Confusion between dun and dene (denu) is 
very common in pi. ns, and it seems by no means im- 
possible that a substitution may have taken place even in 
OE. ay in the modern form must be a phonetic spelling 
(the original a having been lengthened in an open syllable) ; 
cf. Laycock, below. 

Bremhill E of Chippenham. 

937 Breomeh Bremel, Broemel CS nos. 716, 717; 1065 
Bremela (latinized) CD no. 817; 1086 Breme (corrupt) DB; 
1194 Bremleia (prob. identical), Bromel Rot. Cur.; 1219 
Bremel Macray; 1226 Bremleshill Phillipps' ped. fin.; 1233 
Bremhle Macray; 1316 Bromell FA; 1428 Bremel, de Bremele 
ib.; 1468 BremhiU Br. Mus.; 1540 Bremijll Dugdale. 

OE bremel, brmmel^ (brcembel), [< prim. Germ, '^brt^milo-^] 
= 'bramble\ eo and oe in Breomel, Broemel no doubt re- 
present the sound oe (see Btilbring § 166). The form 
Bromel{l) is due to confusion with the cognate broom (< prim. 
Germ, brcemo-s). -hill is consequently not original but a late 
development, due to popular etymology (the village being- 
situated on a hill). Cf. Cherhill, Fonthill, below. 

Bremhill Wick NW of Bremhill. 

1426 Brmnelivik Cal. Inq. ; 1428 in Wyh' FA. 

Originally this place w^as certainly called simply 'Hvlc, 
*(]6t {pmn) wlce; in order to distinguish it from other places 
of the same name it was then called Bremhill Wide, because 
of its proximity to Bremhill (cf. Farleigh Wick, Haydon 
Wick, etc.). Bramel- is based upon an OE brmmel Avith 
shortening of m before ml (in oblique cases). 

Bremilham SW of Malmesbury. 
1065 Bremelham CD no. 817; 1178? BrumUham Br. Mus.; 
1199 Brumelham, Rot. Ch.; Bruinelha Rot. Cur.; 1218 Bre- 
nielam Macrav; 1270 Brimelham, Ch. R; 1404 Bremulham 
Cal. Inq.; [n. d.] Bremelham, Brumelham Reg- Malm. 

^ On this form see Btilbring § 192, anm. 



36 

Originally '■■■hremel-(brcemel-)hdr)L The second element may 
have been OE hcmi (= home, dwelling) as well as ham{m) as 
it is obvious that in most cases it is impossible to distinguish 
these words in ])L ns. The latter is connected with German 
hemmen (to 'hem in ) [< prim. Germ. Viammjan], and its 
original meaning may therefore have been 'a meadow (near 
water) enclosed and defended by a ditch or paling^; see 
NED, Bosworth-Toller, and Wyld, p. 342. Ham{m) still 
exists as a dialectal word in the southern counties, indica- 
ting 'flat, low-l3'ing pasture land near a stream'. 

The u in Brumelham stands for y (< i), the latter vowel 
having been looked upon as original. According to Mors- 
bach § 109, a change of e > i is not to be expected in a 
position before m, but in note I of the same paragraph, ME 
hrimhel is stated as a sporadic form of brembel, and NED 
quotes ME hrimhel as well as hryinhle. 

Bremilham is also called 'Cowage'; see below. 

Bridmore E of Shaftesbury (Dors.). 

1312 Brudemere Pat. E; 1318 Brudemere C. Inq.; 1428 
Brydmere FA. 

Most probably from "^Brydan mdre (= ^emclre). An OE 
p. n. *Bryda is certainly not on record, but the existence 
of such a name is indicated by the local Brydancumhe CS 
no. 714 (= Burcombe, Wilts.), and hrydinga die ib. no. 917, 
-\hridinglie dich ib. no. 970, both obviously representing the 
same earthwork in the vicinity of Bridmore. Was "^'Bryda 
possibly a pet-name formation of hryd-gumal: cf. *Cyppa, 
which may perhaps be considered as a shortened form of 
cypman; see under Chippenham. 

Brigmerston [hrigm9{y)sfn'\ N of Amesbury. 

1086 Brismartone DB; 1199 in Brictmariston Rot. Ch. ; 1270 
Briggemareston Ch. R; 1273 Brylit^nerston, Brigemarsto}i 
C. Inq. ; Edw. I Brichmston, de Bristmeston'' Plac. Warr. ; 
1316 Brightmershton FA; 1361 Bryglitmanston {n mistake 



37 

for r) Cal. Inq. ; 1428 Brightmerston FA; (n. d.) Brihtma- 
rcstun Cat. A. D. 

From '-'Beorht^nceres tun. Beorhtmcer (later Brihtmer) was 
a common OE p. n., of which Brismar (< '^Bristmar) is the 
AN rendering^. (Perhaps the place got its name from 
the Brismar who was a land-holder here in the time of 
Edw. Confessor.) After the loss of t in ME, the fricative (/) 
was voiced and then changed into the corresponding 
explosive g (on account of the difficulty of pronouncing 
gli before ni) cf. the transition oi d > d before s in Alvediston, 
X>h before s in Brixton, and p > t before /"in Ratfijn. 
The spelling sh for s in the FA form of 1316 is due to 
the influence of the common ME Mershton (< OE mersc-tun). 
Brigmilston, as the place is sometimes called, is due to the 
neighbouring Milston. 

Brinkworth NW of Wootton Bassett. 

1065 ■fBrinJceicrda CD no. 817; 1086 Brenchetvrde, Breche- 
orde (corrupt) DB; 1194 de Brinceivrtlie, de Brnchewrth, de 
Brhikewrthe Eot. Cur.; 1220 — 25 Brinleivorth Osmund; 
c. 1290 Brenlcew'rth T. EccL; early 14th cent. BrunJcwurth 
TN; 1316 de BrynJceivorthe FA; 1340 Brenleicorth Ch. E; 
[n. d.] in Bregnkewrthe Reg. Malm. 

'The homestead on the brink', the place being situated 
on the extremitv of the ridg-e of a down. Brinlc (= the 
edge, or border of a steep place) is suggested by Bjorkman 
to be a Scand. loan (Loanwords, p. 232). This would be 
curious, however, as there are no other Scand. elements 
(except Scand. p. ns) in Wilts, pi. ns. As to e for i in 
some ME forms see under Biddestone. Brunk- (in TN) 
stands for BrgnJc-. 



^ Cf. Brislinga. Bristelme{s)tune DB = Brighthng, Brighton. 
Sussex; 5mi^e?mesfo?2e DB = Brighthampton, Oxfs.; Dreslin{g)tone 
DB - Drighlington W. R. of Yorks., etc. 



38 

Britford or Burford SE of Salisbuiy. 

670 ('\)to Bryt. for(J(htgea landsccere) CS no. 27; 826 -^to brnt- 
forda ib. no. 891; 905 {^)to hri/t ford(inga land sceare) ib. 
no. 690; 997 (|)/o Bri/tford{inga landsceare) CD no. 698; 
[1065] -feet Brytfordan AS Chr. [C] (possibly identical); 1086 
Brctford (twice), Bred ford (twice) DB; c. 1115 Britford 
Osmund; 1158 Brutford ib.; 1200 — 10 Bretford ib.; 1285 
Bretford Macray; 1278 Brutford, Brcdford C. Inq.; Edw. I 
Britford Br. Mas.; 1815 Brutford ib.; 1486 Birfford C. Inq.; 
1491 in Byrtforde ib., 1494 Birtford ib. 

Originally ''Brytta {Britta, Bretta) ford, or Brytford 
{Bretford) = 'the ford of the Britons'. The latter form is 
assumed on account of hretland ^, wdiich occurs in Orosius. 
AVith regard to the AS Chr. form there is no doubt that 
the original ms. had '■'cet Bryt(ta)forda which the ME scribe 
took to be an OE nom. and therefore treated as belonging 
to the weak declension; [cf. Cellanwirdan (Chelworth), which 
may be due to a latinized ^CeUcmwirda]. 

The modern variant Burford is easily explained from the 
same OE form: '•^Bryt{ta)ford > ME Byrtford > ^Burtford 
(AN spelling) > Burford, the first element of which has 
been associated with the common Bur- (< OE burh) in pi. 
ns. Cf. Biircomhe, below, Burlington, a variant of Brid- 
lington, E. R. of Yorks. (DB Bretlinton), and Burcot, Oxfs. 
(see Alexander, PI. Ns of Oxfs.). On the AN interchange 
of t and d, in final position see Zachrisson, p. 115, foot-note. 

Brixton Deverill S of Warminster. 

1086 Devrel DB 68 c.-; c. 1290 de Briglitrichestone, Br/gli- 
richeston T. EccL; early 14th cent. Brichtrickeston TN; 



^ This form is certainly genuine and not to be derived from 
an earlier '*hretta land. The compound was probably formed at 
a very early period, before the Celtic hret liad yet adopted OE 
endings. 

- All the five Deverills (Brixton D., Hill D., Kingston D., 
Longbridge D., and Monkton D.) are certainly represented in DB, 



39 

1316 Brighteston FA: 1428 Bryghteston, Brighricheston ib.; 
1435 Brighston Deverell Cal. Inq. ; 1442 Brigteston Deverell 
R. Pat. 

This place has been widely considered to be identical 
with Ecghryhtes stan {he eastan Seal wyda) AS Chr. [A] 
A. D. 878. As far as the names are concerned, however, 
this identification cannot be right, for Brixton is evidently 
derived from ^BeorJitrices (Brihtrices) tun (Beorhtric perhaps 
identical with the Brictric who, according toDB, was the tenant 
here in the time of Edw^ard Confessor). After contraction 
to Bright{e)ston, t has been lost, and Brighston has then 
become Brixton; see Jespersen 2, 324, Horn § 253. 

Deverill, the name of the stream on which this place and 
the other Deverills are situated, must be Celtic and mav 
possibly be cognate Avith Celtic dubro-n, Welsh dwfr, dwr 
= 'water' (usually occuring as Dover in modern names); see 
Stokes, p. 153. The oldest form of Deverill that has been 
found is Defereal (anglicized), mentioned in a charter of 
King Eadgar, dated 968 (Eeg. Wilt.). 

Broad Chalk SW of Wilton. 

1316 de Chalice FA; 1415 Brodechalke Cat. A. D.; 1440 
BrodechaJhe Cal. inq. da. See Bower Chalk. 

Broad Hinton SE of Wootton Bassett. 

1086 Hantone [prob. identical], Hentone DB 71 a, c; 
1232, 1236 Henton Ch. R; c. 1250 Henton Br. Mus.; 1316 
Henton FA; 1333 Brodehenton Phillipps' fines; 1428 Henton 
Columhers, H. Waas FA. 

From an original '-^cet p^m hean tune. The place has an 
elevated situation on the ledge of a chalk-down. The 



where they occur as simply Devrel; but it is rather difficult to 
decide which of these places each Devrel (in DB) refers to. In 
the present case, however, the identity seems indicated by the 
fact that Brictric is mentioned as tenant. 



40 

rt-form in DB is due to an earlier shortening of the OE 
diphthong. For the transition of e>i see Morsbach § 109. 
'Columbers' (Columbels) and 'Waas' (Wace) are AN sur- 
names. 

Broad Town SE of Wootton Bassett. 

1220 cle la Bradetime Cat. A. D.; 1230 in Bradeton' CI. E: 
1271 Brodeton C. Inq. ; 1274 La Bradeton CI. R; 1300 in 
Brodetoune Ch. E; 1322 Broddeton Pat. E; 1324 de Brode- 
tone FA; 1428 Brodetoun ib. 

'^se brdda tun, which may give Bratton as well as Broad 
Town; see under Bradfield. 

Brokenborough NW of Malmesbury. 

956 -^Brolceneberga, ^Bro'keneher{eg)ge CS nos. 921, 922; 1065 
■\Bro7ceneberge CD no. 817; 1086 Brocheneherge DB; c. 1125 
Brocheneberg W. Malm.; 1185 BroJcenesberga Pipe E; 1232 
Brokenburgh Ch. E; 1235 in Brokeberwe CI. E; 1251 in 
BroJceberge Pat. E; c. 1290 BroJceneborwe T. Eccl.; 1316 de 
Brolcenboroive FA; 1340 Brokenbergh Ch. E; 1421 Brohijn- 
borgh Cat. A. D.; 1428 BroJcynborgh, Brokynbergh FA; (n. d.) 
in Brokeneberue Cat. A. D. 

The OE name was obviously ""'se brocena beor^ (beorh), 
probably denoting 'a crumbling hilF^. The second element 
has later on been confused with burgh, borough (< OE 
bur{u)h) and, as is most often the case when this happens 
in pi. ns, borough has survived; cf. Marlborough, Wan- 
borough, Woodborough, below. 

Note. Kemble's identification of t(ow) brochenen berge CD no. 
284, and (to) brocenan heorge ib. nos. 1002, 1186 with this place 
is obviously incorrect. The first of these places is mentioned 
among the boundaries of Tefunte (= Tef font) in south Wilts. ; 
the two latter names represent one and the same place, probably 
in Soms. 



^ This meaning is strongly supported by the fact that the 
ground in this part is composed of oolitic chalk. 



41 

Bromham NW of Devizes. 

1086 Bromham DB; c. 1090 Bromham Br. Mus.; 1312 Brom- 
ham Ch. li. 

Originally ''''hrdm-ham (or possibly -ham(m)); OE brom = 
'broom'. For ham see under Bremilham. 

Broughton Gilford NE of Bradford. 

1001 at Broctune CD no. 706; 1086 Brodone, in Broctune 
DB; 1194 hi Broctou Rot. Cur.; 1267 de Brochetone Ma- 
cray; 1281 Brochton Ch. R; c. 1290 de Brodone T. Eccl.; 
1293 Broiiton'D\xgdi^\Q\ 1328 Broghton C. Inq.; l^lb Brogh- 
fon Giffard Phillipps' fines; 1428 Broughton, Brodon FA. 

Original!}" hroc-tun. The place is situated on a little af- 
fluent of the Lower Avon. The Broughtons in England 
are numerous. It is to be noticed that the OE combina- 
tion d, arisen in the formation of pi. ns, as a rule develops 
into ht in early ME, consequently coinciding with ht 
< pre-Germ. Jet [on this point see Wyld, p. 300]; cf. 
Wroiighton, below. The few cases in which this transition 
has not taken place may be due to the fact that the original 
sense of the first element was kept in mind while the 
sound-law in question was in force. Such names are e. g. 
Aden (TrusseU), Staffs. (< OE clc-tun), Brodon, Staffs, and 
several BrocJctons, Salop. [< OE "^broc-tim]. c may also have 
been assimilated to t in some names, as is assumed in the 
case of Latton, beloAv. 

'Gifford' (Gifard) is an AN family name; see Hildebrand, 
p. 336; see also Jones, p. 201. 

Bugley W of Warminster. 

1256 in Buggel R. fin. exc. (prob. identical); EdAV. I in 
Biigelighe, Bogelegh Br. Mus.; 1536 Biiggeley Dugdale. 

Apparently from an original "^'cet Buggan lea^e. Whether 
the first element represented a male or female name, we 
cannot say. Bugge was the name of the daughter of King 
Centwine (Migne, Aldh. epist., p. 290) and also occurs 



42 

in CS no. 156 (Bucgan)^, but a masculine equivalent is not 
on record. 

Bulbridge [bulhrid^] near Wilton. 

c. 1200 de Bolehiggc, de Bulebrige Macray; 1248 de Bulc- 

driggc ib.; c. 1290 Bolehrygg T. Eccl. 

Probably from '-^'Bidan bryc^; '-^'Bula may well have been 

a hypocoristic form of such names as ^Bideferth (< *Bul(c)- 

frip) occurring in the local -fBuIeferthes steort CS no. 687, 

or of Bulercd (on a coin of the time of Eadweard III). 

Note also such pi. ns as BiiUnga fenn CS no. 1351, hulan 

JioJ ib. no. 144, Bidan ham ib. no. 218, hulan mcedce ib. no. 

491, hidlanholt ib. no. 565, on hulan tvyllan ib. no. 1282, 

p. 589, Bui and un CD no. 707. 

Note. Middendorff s explanation of the element hul in Engl. 
pi. ns seems untenable. How could the OE element hulan- 
( which moreover is recorded in the early 8th cent.) represent 0. 
Norse holr, hulrl His assumption of an OE adj. ''"^'bul (= *^ge- 
schwollen^) seems also too hypothetical to be credited. 

Bulford [bulfd(;r)d] NE of Amesbury. 

1178? Bultisford Br. Mus.; 1199 de Bidtiford Rot. Ch. ; 
1270 Bulteford, Bultesford(a) Ch. R; 1286 Bultisford ib.; 
1316 de BoUforde FA; 1331 Bulteford C. Inq.; 1428 Boltc- 
ford FA; 1566 Bulford Br. Mus. 

From '^Bidtan ford, Bidta probably representing some 
p. n. beginning with Btdt-, of which '"^Bidtfrip {Bultfridi 
Lat. gen.) is found in CS no. 91. The same name evidently 
occurs in BoUintone DB, situated, like Bulford, in the 
hundred of Ambresbury. 

Bulkington [bdlhiyjfn] W of Potterne. 

1224 in Bulhintoh R. fin. exc. ; 13th cent. Bolkintone hiher 
rub.; 1316 BuTkmgton FA; 1324 Btdhynton ib.; 1330 Bul- 

^ From this dat. form. Searle erroneously gives a nom, form 
*Bugga, and he makes the same mistake in the case of Cillan, 
dat. (CS nos. 29, 101); sec Chilton. 



43 

Icentou C. Inq. ; 1332 Bu/lyngton Ch. li; 1417 BulJcindon 
Cal. Inq.; 143-1: BidJcijngdon ib. 

Originally "^'Bidlciiiga {Bulcaiil) tun, ''-'Bulca being probably 
a petform of some OE p. n. beginning with Bide-. Of such 
names Bulcred alone is recorded. Note also (to) hidcan 
pytte CS no. 225, evidently situated in east Wilts, near 
Bedwyn. 

Bupton S of Wootton Bassett. 

1232 in Biihheclwe Ch. R (identical according to editor); 
1344 Bohheton Hot. Grig.; 1346 Buhheton Cal. Inq.; 1428 
Bohuton FA; 1488 Biibton C. Inq. 

From Biibhan tun, Buhha being an OE p. n. ii for r in 
Bohuton is merely orthographic. 

Burbage SE of Marlborough. 

961 Burlibece, ^Burgbeche, '\hurg beces CS no. 1067; ^Ethelred 
"fBurhbec CD no. 1312; 1086 Biirbetce, Burbetc, Buberge 
(corruj^t) DB; c. 1115 Bitrbach Osmund; c. 1140 Burbeclia 
Macray; 1177 Burbache ib.; 1194 Burggebge Rot. Cur.; 
1199 Burebache Rot. Ch. ; 1200 Biirbech Osmund; 1204 
Biirbeche R. L. Pat.; 1227 Burbech, Burbach Ch. R: 1232 
Burbeche Macraj^; 1314 Burghbach Sauvage C. Inq.: 1316 
Borebache FA; 1S20 Burbachesauvage CI. R; 1338 Bourbach ib. 

The first element is obviousty OE burh\ the second pro- 
bably OE bece (= beech-tree) ^, which may have had a collec- 
tiA^e sense here (i. e. =Svood of beeches') just like OE bed{e)- 
winde and bremel (mod. Bedwyn, Bremhill). The supposi- 
tion of a plur. sense is also supported by the form burg 
beces CS no. 1067. For Bourbach see Burton, below. 

The modern -age is due to weakened stress; cf. Cotuagr 
(< OE -u'lc), below, Stevenage, Herts. (< OE -h(Bc{c)), see 
Skeat, PI. Ns of Herts, p. 65. 

'Sanvage' is an AN family name. 

^ A derivation from OE bece (=^brook', see NED under "^bache', 
"^beck') is out of the question for topographical reasons. 



44 

Note. Biirhheca CD no. 916 and yBurbagh ib. no. 939, which, 
like the places above (CD nos. 1236, 1312), have been located 
by Kemble in Berks., are identical with Burbage, Leics. 

Burcombe W of Wilton. 

987 Bvijdancumh CS no. 714; 1086 Bredecumhe {twicQ)jyB\ 
c. 1290 de Briideciimbe, Bridecumhe T. Eccl. ; liMQ de Brid- 
combe, de Brudecombe FA; de Brideciimbe CI. R; 1428 in 
Brudecombe, de Brutcombe FA; 1481 Northbritcombe^r. Mus.; 
1540 Burdcombe Dugdale. 

For '■Bri/da see Bridmore. The development of the present 
name is analogous with that of Burford (Britford). 

Burford see Britford. 

Burton near Mere. 

1286 de Burton' CI. R; 1M4 Mereburton V^it. 11: 1398 Mere 
Bourton Cal. Inq. ; 1428 Bourton FA. 

Most probably from %urh-tun ^. In ME the first element 
has been confused with the subst. bour (< OE bur); cf. 
Bourton, Glos. and Berks., both of which are derived from 
OE burh-tun (see Baddele}^, p. 28; Skeat, PL Ns of Berks. 
]). 92). 

The distinctive name refers to the neighbouring Mere. 

Bury Blunsdon near Blunsdon, Broad. 

early 14th cent. Burihluntesdon TN; 1319 Burbluntesdon 
Pat. E; 1882 Buribluntesdon CI. R. 

Originally '^'cet {pcere) byri^. There are still remnants of 
ancient fortifications at this place. For Blunsdon see 
above. 

Bushton [buff if] S of Wootton Bassett. 
1816 Bisshoppeston FA. 

^ An OE '''hur-tun is, on the other hand, a most unlikely name, 
as hur seems to have been chiefly a literary word and not 
much in use. 



45 

From %isc{e)opes [bijsc{e)opes] tun. The modern form is 
due to an AN rendering of '^'BysMon, a contraction of ME, 
'-•'BijsJwjjestoii, with a later association of the first syllable 
with the subst. bush. Cf. Biissheton, Br. Mus. [= Bishops- 
tone, above]. 

Buttermere SE of Shalbourne. 

863 ■\Butermere CS no. 508; 931 -fBufer mere ib. no. 678; 
1086 Butremare (twice), Butremere DB; William I Bivtcer- 
mcerce Br. Mus.; 1284 Butermere Ch. E; c. 1290 Botemere, 
Boiemere T. EccL; 1330 Botermere Br. Mus.; 1373 Botur- 
mere Cal. inq. da. 

Names beginning with Butter- are not uncommon in 
England, and in some cases this may well be derived from 
OE butere, e. g. Butterton, Staffs., see Duignan, PI. Ns of 
Staffs., and Butterivorth, Yorks., see Goodall. In the pre- 
sent case, however, it can hardly be anything but a p. n. 
'^Buter (< Scand. Butr). For the retention of r see Bjork- 
man, Pers. I, p. 184. The same name probably also occurs 
in the latinized Buicrus Ellis Intr. II p. 300. The second 
member is OE ni^re {gem^re) = 'boundary', 'landmark'. There 
is another Buttermere in Cumb., which certainly contains 
the same p. n. (see Sedgefield). 

Cadnam N of Calne. 

1468 Cadenham Br. Mus. 

Undoubtedly from '^Cadan helm (or hamm), Cada being 
perhaps the same person as has given his name to the 
adjoining Catcombe (see below). For this p. n. see Mtiller, 
p. 49. 

Calcutt [kolJcdt] near Cricklade. 
1086 Colecote DB; 1327 Colcote C. Inq.; 1334 Coleeote ib.; 
1342 Colecote Cal. Inq.; 1404 Calcote ib.; 1416 Colcote ib.; 
1493 in Ccdecote C. Inq.; 1623 Callcott Br. Mus. 

Probably from '-^Colan cot(e); the p. n. Cola may, according 
to Bjorkman, Pers. I, p. 84, possibly be an anglicized form 



4G 

of the Scand. Coli. (yolcutt is one of those pL ns, the 
development of which has been influenced by a tendency 
among the dialects of Wilts, to change o > a, which seems 
to have been in force since the 1 5th cent. The other names 
showing this change are Eatfyn, Wansdyhe, and Wraxhall 
{North and South) ^. 

The modern pronunciation of Calcutt is merely a spelling 
pron. 

Calne \kmi, haan]. 

955 Calne CS no. 912; [978] CaJne AS Chr. [E] (prob. iden- 
tical); 997 Calnw CD no. 698; 1086 Cauna'DB; 1091 Calna 
Osmund; c. 1108 Kalii ib.; 1160 Canna Macray; c. 1180 
Cauna Osmund; 1194 Canne, Calne Rot. Cur.; Hen. Ill 
Kaune Rot. H. 

This name must be Celtic, probably the same word as 
Colne, Lanes, (occurring as Calna, Caiine in the 13th cent.); 
see Wyld. 

Calstone Wellington {kolsfn'l SE of Calne. 

1086 Caledone (three times) DB; 1130 Calestona H. Pipe 11; 
1194 de Calestoh, de Karletoh Rot. Cur.; 1204 in Calestou 
R. Oblat. ; 1225 de Calestun R. fin. exc. ; 1273 Calston, 
Calestou C. Inq. 

The first element is evidently the Scand. p. n. '■'•Kale 
(Kali), for w^hich see Bjorkman, Pers. II, p. 50. The termina- 
tion is OE tiln. According to Jones, p. 203, 'Wellington 
refers to John de Wilinton, a baron of the time of Edw. III. 

Castle Combe NW of Chippenham. 

1086 Come BB; 1269 Ciimhe C. In(|.; Camba Br. Mus.; 
1270, 1283 in Cumbe Ch. R; 1315 Casteleomhe ib. ; 1322 



' The existence of this tendenc}^ in the districts where these 
places are situated lias been confirmed by all those people I 
have consulted on the question. 



47 

Castelcoumbe ib.; 1328 Castelcomhe C. Inq.; 1-1:'22 Castelcome 
Cal. Inq.; 1428 in Comhe FA. 

OE ciimh (= small valley). In DB h is sometimes lost 
medially after m\ see Stolze § 34; cf. Elcombe, Stitchcombe, 
Tidcombe, Whitcombe, below. 'Castle' refers to an ancient 
Norman castle, of which there are still traces. 

Castle Eaton NE of Cricklade. 

1086 Ettone DB; 1218 Etun Pat. R; c. 1290 Eaton Meysif 
T. EccL; 1316 Eton Meijsij FA; 1371, 1375 Eijton Meisy 
Cal. Inq.; 1428 Eaton Meysy FA; 1503 Castell Eton Cat. 
A. D.; c. 1540 Elton Castelle Leland. 

Originally "^'ea-tun ("enclosure by water , here the Thames). 
Eyton, Eiton are AN" spellings; see Zachrisson, Stud, i mod. 
sprakvet. Y. p. 16. 

"Meisy' was a family name, possibly of French origin. 
'Castle' may refer to some mediaeval castle, of which, however, 
there are no visible traces at the present time. 

Catcombe N of Calne. 

1240 in CadecumV CI. R. 

From ^Caclan cumh; see Cadnam, above. 

Chaddenwicke \tftvcVnivilc\ E of Mere. 

1086 Chedelwich DB; 1283 Chadewiz C. Inq.; 1322 Chaden- 
tviche Cal. inq. da.; 1324 Cliadewych Pat. E,; 1414 Chadnes- 
wyche Cal. Inq.; 1428 in Chademvyche FA] \A^^ of Chaden- 
wiche C. Inq. 

From an original "^-'cet Cead(d)an ivtce, Cead{d)a being pro- 
bably a shortened form of Ceadw(e)alla, the anglicized form 
of the Celtic Ccedivalla. The substitution of I for n in the 
DB form is due to AN infl.; see Zachrisson, p. 141 ff., 
and also s: for ch in Chadetvic, see ib. p. 26 f. 

Chalcot SW of Westburv. 
1269 (de) Chaldccote 11. fin. exc. ; 1318 (in) Chaldecote Ch. R. 



48 

Originally, '''pcet cealde cot, '-'seo cealde cote. This name, 
of which the Anglian equivalent CaIdecot{e), Caulcott is 
rather common,, may have indicated a 'shelter^ or 'abandoned 
cottage'. Cf. cold harhoiir (also frequently used as a pi. n.) 
= 'a place of shelter for wayfarers by the wayside' (see 
'harbour' NED). 

Chalfield, Great, and Little. 

1001 ■fChaldfelde CD no. 706; 1086 Caldefelle DB; 1194 
Chaudefeld Rot. Cur.; 1199 Chadesfeld, Kaldefeld, in Caudi- 
feld ih.; 1201 Chaudefeld, Scaudefeld Phillipps' ped. fin.; 1216 
in Chaldefeld R. L. CI.; 1254 de Chaudefeld' E,. fin. exc. ; 
1318 Shaldefeld Parva Pat. E; 1428 Est Chaldefeld (= Ch. 
Great), West Chaldefeld (= Ch. Little) FA. 

Originally "^'se cealcla feld (ceald to be taken in the sense 
of 'bleak', 'windswept'). As the phonetic value of c before 
a in DB is Jc (Zachrisson, p. 34), it may be the Angl. form 
that has influenced the scribe in this case; cf. the 1199 
forms (Rot. Cur.). The orthographic confusion of ch, sc and 
s{c)Ji is discussed by Zachrisson, p. 38. For the loss of 
medial d in DB see Stolze § 37. 

Chapmanslade [tfcepmdnslei(l\ SW of Westbury. 

1396 Chepmanslade Cal. Inq. ; 1455 Chijnnanslade ib.; 1463 
Chapmanslade ib.; 1476 Chipmanslade ib. 

Originally '"^'cet ceap- \cepe-, cype-] mannes lade (with ME 
shortening of a in the second element). OE lad^ ^eldd seems 
to have denoted 'road' as well as 'water-way'; see 'load', 
'lode' NED, and 'lode' EDD. In the name under discussion 
the former meaning is jDresent. Cf. Chicklade, Cricklade. 
The mod. pronunciation {-leid) is due to the spelling. 

Charlton NE of Malmesbury. 

680 -fde Cherl{e)tone CS no. 59; 844 -^Cherltune {'\Choerletune) 
ib. no. 447; 965 — 71 mt Ceorlaiunoe CS no. 1174; 1065 
'\Cheorletuna CD no. 817; 1086 Cerletone DB I: 67 a; 1316 
Cherlton FA; 1428 Charl{e)ton ib. 



49 

From an original '^ceorla tiin. In the OE constitution, a 
'ceorr was 'a man without rank', 'a member of the third 
or loAA^est rank of freemen". For oe as a representative of 
OE eo in early ME see Biilbring, Bonner Beitr. zur Angl. 
XV: VII. The three following names are explained in the 
same way. 

Note, {in) Ceorletune Thorpe, p. 443. and (^0 Ceorlatune ib., pp. 
534, 535 are in the index located in Wihs. This seems, however, 
very doubtful, at least as far as the former place is concerned. 

Charlton SW of Pewsey. 

1225 Cherhfon Pat. II (prob. identical); 1290 Cherleton T. 
EccL; 1316 Cherleton FA; 142-4 Charleton ib. 

Charlton SSE of Salisbury. 

1311 Cherlefone C. Inq.; 1316 Cherleton FA; 1428 Charle- 
ton ib. 

Charlton ESE of Shaftesbury (Dors.). 
1216 in Cherleton Eot. Ch.; 1282 Cherleton Br. Mus. 

Chedglow \tfeclglou\ N" of Malmesbury. 

1086 Chegeslaue, Chegeslei, Cheieslave (corrupt) DB; 1167 
Cheggeslaiva Pipe R; 1176 Cheggeleiva ib.; 1194 de Chegelawe, 
de Seggelaive Rot. Cur.; E/ic. I de Seggelaive Abbr. Plac. ; 
1203 Chicheleive Phillipps' ped. fin. ; 1222 m Cheggelauwe 
Macray; 1257 Chigelawee C. Inq.; Edw. I Cheggelegh Rot. H; 
Edw. Ill de Cheggelewe, Cheggelegh (several times) NI; 
1361 Chechelawe Gal. Inq.; in Chicheloive CI. E,; 1428 in 
Cheggelewe FA; 1540 Chegislotv, Cheggeley Dugdale. 

The second element was obviously OE hlaiv Qilmv) = 
"(funeral) mound'. As to the first element, it most probably 
represents an OE p. n. There is one on record, which 
would fit in here, viz. ^Cecc{e) [signum Cecces CS no. 183]. 
Chedglow maj^ therefore possibly be derived from "^Cecces 

4 E. Ekblom 



50 

hlaw Qilceic). s for cli is merely orthographic; see Zachrisson 
p. 37 f. The termination has, in DB, NI, and Dugdale, been 
confused with the common -lei, legh; cf Winterslovv, below. 

Chelworth NE of Crudwell. 

Alfred '\de ChocUeivrthe, '\CeUanivurd CS nos. 568, 569; c. 
900 "fCellewird ib. no. 584; '\Chelleivrth, ■fChoellewiihe [\Cel- 
lanwirdan, '\CeoIiuurde\, 'fcJteleivorpe ib. nos. 585, 586; 956 
•\de cheleivrthe ib. no. 922; 1065 ■\Chelleivrda CD no. 817; 
1086 in Celeorde DB; 1158 Chelesivurda Pipe 11 (or = Chel- 
worth, below); 1322 C/«7?^'(9r/A Pat. E (or = Chelworth, below); 
1490 Chelwourth C. Inq. ; (n. d.) {de) Chocllewrpe, (de) ChoI{l)e- 
ivrthe (several times) Reg. Malm. 

From '"'-'' Ceol{J)an u-eorp (luorp, tviirp, tvyrp), Ceol(l)a being 
probably a shortened form of some p. n. beginning with 
Ceol-, of which there are numerous examples; see Miiller, p. 
50. The final d for tli in the second member may be due 
to weakened stress. In DB medial th is generally rendered 
by d; see Stolze § 38. Chol{J)ewrthe indicates change of 
stress. The form Cellanivirdan is probably due to a latini- 
zed ^Cellanivirda (cf. Bvitfordcm under Britford), Avliich has 
been treated by the ME scribe as if it belonged to the OE 
Aveak declension. 

Chelworth SW of Cricklade. 

1086 Celewrde DB; 1272 CheUewrth Br. Mus.; 1281 Chele- 
wiirth (or possibly Chelworth, above) C. Inq.; Edw. I in 
Cheleswortli Plac. Warr.; 1316 de Cheleworthe FA; 1327 
Chelleivorth Cinq.; 1334 Great Cheleworth ib.; 1?>^1 Magna 
Scheletvorth Phillipps' fines; 1485 Chelleivorth C. Inq. 

See preceding name. Scheletvorth is another example of 
the ortliographic confusion discussed by Zachrisson, p. 37 f. 

Cherhill E of Cahie. 

1158 Ceriel Pipe 11; 1215 de Chlriel P. L. CI.; 1240 Cyriel 
Macray; 1267 Chyrielih.; 127 b Churiel C. Inq.; 1315 Uiynjel 



51 

lb.; 1316 de Chyrrele FA; 1324 CheHel ib.; 1428 Chynjell 
ib.; 1490 CMriell C. Inq.; 1577 Cheriell Br. Mus.; 1664 
CherhiU ib. 

The etymology of this name is obscure. All that is clear is 
that the /?27^element is a very late formation, due to popular 
etymology (cf. BremhJll, Fonthill). 

Cheverell, Great and Little SSW of Potterne. 

1086 Chevrel DB; 1217 Cheverel E. fin. exc. ; 1249 Chy- 
verel C. Inq.; 1274 Great Chyverel ib. ; 1279 Cheveroil Fine 
Rolls; 1286 Chiverel C. Inq.; 1301 Little Cheveroill Ch. R; 
1316 ChyvereU Magnet^ Ch. Parva FA; 1402 Cheveryll 
Magna ib. 

This name is probably not Germanic. 

Chicklade [tfiMeid] N of Hindon. 

1199 de ChiJcelad Rot. Cur.; Edw. I in ChiJcelade Plac. 
Warr.; 1296 de Chiklede Pat. R; 1316 de ChicJclaude FA; 
1396 CheJclade Cal. Inq.; 1408 Chekelade ib.; 1428 in Chy- 
Icelade, de Chyclade FA; 1491 in Chykelade C. Inq. 

Probably from an original '"^'cet Cices (Cicanl) lade (lad 
here = 'road^; cf. Chapman slade). Judging from the latinized 
CicliKS, which occurs among the signatories of several OE 
charters, we are entitled to assume the existence of an 
OE p. n. *Cic (perhaps also ''^Cica). This p. n. seems 
moreover to be found in other pi. ns, e. g. in Chick Hill 
Sussex (1284 Chikehull Cal. Inq.), Chichsands Beds. {Chice- 
sane DB; Chikesaund FA, Rot. H). Chi cJcs grove ^, SE of 
Chicklade, no doubt also contains the same p. n. -laude 
(in FA) seems to indicate a tendency towards the retention 
ol: the long vowel in the development of the name; cf. 
CreJcJcelaude (Phillipps' fines) = mod. Cricklade. 



^ Unfortunately I have not been able to find any old refer- 
ences to this name. 



52 

Chilhampton ^ [— — — ] N of Wilton. 
1291 Childhamjjfoii Cal. Inq. ; \W3 Childliampf on C\. 11; esirly 
14tli cent. ChihUimpton TN; 1828 Childchampton Cal. inq. 
da. ; 1481 ChUhampfon Br. Mus. 

This name is derived from ''■''cilda hdm-tun ('the children's 
homestead'), cf. cilda stan C8 nos. 767, 1164, 1287; Cilda 
fan CD nos. 796, 1810. 

Chilmark E of Hindon. 
929—940 jChieldmearc CS no. 745; 1086 Chilmcre DB; 
1166 Chilmerc Pipe E; c. 1290 Chilm'k T. Eccl. ; 1296 
ChiUmarlc Pat. R; 1816 de Chilmerle FA; 1428 ChilmarJc ib. 

The original form seems to have been '•'' cilda mearc; OE 
meare f. = 'boundary', 'landmark'. For cUda see preceding- 
name. 

Chiiton Foliat NW of Hungerford (Berks.). 
1086 CiUetone BB; 1221 Chilton Foliot I'sit. li; 1227 Chilton 
FoUot Ch. E; 1807 Chylton C. Inq.; 1816 de Chiltone FA: 
1321 Chilton Tois Cal. Rot. Ch.; 1822 Chilton Tieys Ch.R; 
1386 Chilton Tijeis ib. 

The DB form indicates an original ''•''CiUaii tun. A Aveak 
niasc. p. n. '''Cilia is not on record, but a f em. '••(7i//e existed 
[recorded in dat. (Cillan") in CS nos. 29, 101]. A strong 
masc. Cille is also found (CS no. 75, and on a coin of the 
time of Harold I). 

'Foliat' (Foliot) is a French family name, probably also 

'T3^eis' (Tois). In TN, p. 145, Sampson Foliot is mentioned 

as the holder of Chilton and Dreycot (= Dra^^cot Foliat). 

Note. Kemble's identification of" Cioltan ford CD no. 320 
with Chilton is impossible, as this place is mentioned among the 
boundaries of Nordniwetune (= Newnton, North). 

^ There are no less than four 'Hamptons' in the vicinity of 
Wilton, each with a distinctive first element, viz. Chilhampton, 
Ditchampton, Netherhamptou, and Quidliampton. 

" As in the case of Buggan (see under Bugley), Searle here 
makes tlie same mistake of assuming a nom. ''^Cilla from this 
dat. form. 



53 

Chippenham. 

[878] to Cipimnhamme AS Chr. [A]; 880—85 (Et Ci2)pan 
hamme [^cet Cippenhamme] CS no. 553; •fSchyppenam ib. no. 
554; Chippenam ib. no. 555; 901 — 24 cet Cippan homme ib. 
no. 591; 940 'fChippenham CS no. 751 (prob. identical); 
1086 Chepeham, Cepcham, Clupeham DB; 1176 Chypeliam 
Pipe R; 1178 Chep{p)eham ib.; 1200 Chipcham Eot. Ch. ; 
J204 Chippeha ib.; 1217 Chipham Pat. E; 1225 Chipeslia 
E. L. CI.; 1227 Chip(p)eham Ch. E; Sipeam CI. E; 1240 
Sypeham ib.; 1249 Chuppeham, Chipeham C. Inq.; 1264 
Cliippenham ih.', 1319 Shippenham CI. E; 1376 Chepenham 
Eot. Orig.; 1420 Chippyngham Pliillipps' fines; 1424 CMppen- 
kam FA. 

The first element can hardly be anything but the gen. 
of a p. n. *Cyppa, the patronymic of which occurs in DB 
as Chipinc (Ellis, Intr. II, p. 68). The same name is contained 
in {to) Cyppanhamme CS no. 246 (= Chippenham, Glos.), 
possibly also in {■\)cipes broc CS 1111 (with substitution of 
strong for Aveak gen. ending). One may be inclined to explain 
'■^•Cyppa (< ■^Cypa) as a pet-name, formed from OE cypman. 
The second element was OE ]tam{m), for which see Bremil- 
ham. On the orthographic interchange of 5', ^(c)/?, and ch 
see Zachrisson, p. 37 f. 

Chirton SE of Devizes. 

1086 Ceritone DB; 1194 Cherint, Eot. Cur.; 1221 Chirituh 
E. L. CI; 1229 de Chiriton' CLE; 1285 Churitone C. Inq.; 
c. 1290 de Chirtone T. EccL; 1316 Churughton FA; 1321 
CJmrghton C. Inq.; 1324 Churughton Pat. E; Chereton FA; 
1348 Chirghton Phillipps' fines; 1373 Chirughton Cal. Inq.; 
1428 Cheryton, Shirghton, Chernton, Chyryton FA; 1473 
Cherghton Cah Inq. 

This name seems impossible to explain. 

Note. Cyricestun CD no. 1065 can obviously not be identical 
with this place, as is suggested b}^ Kemble. 



54 

Chisbury NE of Burbage. 

1086 Cheseherie DB; 1247 de Chessehure Uacvdy; 1260, 1270 
Chissebury Ch. E,; 1270 Cliysehmj Pat. E,; 1279 Chessehury 
Br. Mus. ; 1285 Chussehuria, Chesshuria ib. ; c. 1290 Chise- 
bury T. Eccl. (prob. identical); 1316 Chussebury FA; 1360 
Chessebury Cal. Inq. ; 1402, 1428 Chissebitry FA. 

Most probably fi'om an original '^'wt Cissan byri^, Cissa 
being an OE p. n., occurring i. a. in LYD ; see Mulle]-, 
p. 50. ^t in Chussehury stands for a ME secondary y (looked 
upon as original). As to e for i in the first syllable of 
some ME forms, see under Biddestone. 

Chisenbury N of Enford. 

1086 Chesigeherie DB; 1226 de Chesingebefie Osmund; 1227 
Chisingebiir Cli. R; 1270 Chisingbury ib. ; c. 1290 Chesyng- 
bury T. Eccl.; 131Q Chusingbury ¥ A; 14:28 Chesyngbury ib.; 
1485, 1493 Chesyngbury C. Inq. 

Originally ''^''cet Cissinga byri^. For Cissa see preceding 
name. In the DB form a stroke (-) over i (representing 
the following n) has been left out. 

Chisledon or Chiseldon SSE of Swindon. 

880 — 885 cet Cyseldenc^ OS no. bbS; "fat Kyseldene^ ih. 554; 
Alfred Ciseldenu ^ ib. 565 ; 900 •\Ceolseldcne ^ ib. 594 ; -jCeo- 
seldene^ ib. 598; 903 -fCeoseldene^ ib. 602; 925—941 Cysel- 
dene ^, t(^^^) Chcseldene ^ "fde Chiseldene ^ ib. 648 ; 1086 Chisel- 
dene DB; c. 1290 Chiseldene T. Eccl.; 1299 Chuseldene 
Pat. II; 1306 Cheselden Ch. R; 1316 de Chuseldone FA; 
1428 Cheselden, Chyselden ib.; 1457 Chiseldeen Cat. A. D. ; 1495 
Cheselden C. Inq. 

The first element is WS cisil, cysel [Angl. Kent, eeosel] 
= 'graver, 'shingle\ The second element was OE denu = 
Valley'. Tlie village is situated on a brook (a sub-affluent 
of the r. Cole); -don in the modern name refers to the 



^ The identity is, if not quite certain, at least very probable. 



55 

down on its south side, over which the greater part of the 
village now extends, h in Ki/seldene is merely scribaL 

Chitterne, AH Saints and Ch. St. Mary [tfit9{r)n] ENE 
of Hey tes bury. 

1086 Chetre (three times), Cheltre (prob. identical, but cor- 
rupt) DB; 1166 Cettra Pipe E; 1205 Cettre Rot. Ch. ; 
1232 Cettra Ch. E; 1248 Cettre ib.; 1255 Cetter Cal. Eot. 
Ch. (prob. identical); 1289 Chytterne Br. Mus., c. 1290 
Cettre T. Eccl. ; Edw. I in Chytterne, in Chyttijrne Plac. 
Warr. ; 1316 de Chuterne FA; 1324 Chitterne Maiden (= St. 
Mary) Pat. E; 1428 in Chitterne, Cettre Beats Marie FA. 

The second element probably represents OE cern = 'house\ 
Mwelhng', *^place^ which was very common as a termination 
in OE (e. g. her(e)-ceni, eorp-cern, heal-cern, hord-cern) ^. The 
first element, which is most probably the same as in Chittoe, 
may be a p. n., although no suitable independent name is 
on record. The local Cytanforde CD no. 714, cytan seohtres 
ford CS no. 963, and "fcytan igge ib. no. 1002 indicate, 
however, the existence of a p. n. ^Cyta, which may possibly 
be concealed in the name under notice and in the next 
one. Zachrisson (Stud, i mod. sprakvet. YI, p. 293, foot- 
note 2, calls attention to the probability of Cyta in these 
OE pL ns being nothing but the bird's name (NE 'kite^), ap- 
plied as a nick-name. This also agrees with the initial cJi 
in the DB form, but the mod. pronunciation is in that case 
a spelling pron. For the change of i > e in some forms see 
under Biddestone. 

The distinctive names refer to churches. 

Chittoe [tfitu] SW of Calne. 

1167 de Cheteive Pipe E; 1227 in Cheteweye Macray; 1260 
Cheteive Ch. E; 1389 Chutuwe Cat. A. D. ; 1390 Cheteive 
Philhpps' fines; 1418 Chutewe Cal. Inq. ; 1634 Chittoe Br. 
Mus. 

^ Other Wilts, pi. ns in -erne are Colerne, Potterne, and Vasterne. 



56 

Possibly from an original ''Ve^ Gijtan we^e (see above). The 
second element was obviously OE ive^^ which after weakening- 
has coincided with the common ending -oe {-hoc) ^ in pi. ns. 

Cholderton E of Amesbury. 

1086 Celdrintone (twice), Celdretone DB; llT-i Cheldrintona 
Pipe 11; 1180? Cheldretona Br. Mus.; 1194 de CheJdritoh 
Rot. Cur.; 1256 Chedermton C. Inq.; 1257 Cheldrinton ib.; 
1270 Cheldrington Ch. E,; c. 1290 Cheldertone, Chelnjngton T. 
EccL; Edw. I de Childerington Plac. Warr. ; 1296 Chelde- 
r'mgton Pat. li; 1307 Chcldnjngton C. Inq. ; ISIQ Chaldryii- 
ton FA; 1318 Childerfon C. Inq.; 1428 Chaldnjngton FA; 
1482 Chcddryngton Cal. Inq. 

From ^'Ceolredinga (or ^'Ceolricinga) tun, Ceolred and Ceolric 
being recorded OE p. ns. For the development of this 
|)1. n. cf. Alderton and Hilperton. o in the mod. name is due 
to the dialectal pronunciation of e in this position, which 
tends to o. The early insertion of d between I and r- and 
its subsequent occurrence is probably due to the influence 
of the ME adj. cJiald, cheld (< ceald), the influence of this 
adj. being particularly indicated by the form Chcddr'ijn{g)ton 
(quoted three times), in which a can hardly be explained 
in any other way. 

For Child- see Morsbach § 109. 

Christian Malford NE of Chippenham. 

937 '\ Crist emcde ford CS no. 717; 940 ■\Cristemalford ib. no. 
752; 1086 Cristemeleforde DB; 1166 de Cristesmeleford Pipe 
E/; 1167 Cristes Melesford ib.; 1181 de Cristemeresford' 
ib. ; 1194 Cristesmaelford Rot. Cur.; 1196 in Cristcmaleford 
Feet of fines; 1207 de Crustemeleford Eot. Ch.; 1227 Crist- 
melford Ch.Bj; 1232 Cr istemelef or d ih.; 12S0 C{h)ristemeleford 
ib.; P]dw. I Cristc{s)malcford Plac. Warr.; 1316 Cristemallc- 

^ On this element see Skeat, PL Ns of Beds. p. 29 fi"., Moor- 
man, p. 52, Wyld, p. 95. 

^ In the case of alder (< OE idor) for instance, d does not 
appear till the 14tli cent. 



i)i 



ford FA; 1540 Christen Malford Dugdale; c. IMO Ckrist'me 
Maleforde Leland. 

Originally ''Crlstes-mcel-ford ("the ford at the cross^). The 
ME forms exhibit two different types: one with an early 
shortening of the medial ce (by weakening), which has 
sarvived, the other with a later shortening, r for / in 
Cristemeresford maj^ be due to AN infl. ; see Zachrisson. 
p. 143. The e-voAvel between I and f is merely a con- 
necting vowel. 

Chute (Forest) [ffuwf] NE of Ludgershall. 

1178? Celt Br. Mus.; 1199 Chett not. Ch.; 1215 Cet U. 
Oblat.; 1222 Cet Pat. E; 1245 Schet ib. ; 1255 of Cette ib. ; 
de Chete E. Pat.; 1258 Chut, Chet C. Inq.; 1284 of Choete 
CI. E; of Chute Ch. E; 1288 Chw/t Pat. E; Chiet CI. E; 
1291 Shut Pat. E; 1295 Chiiet ib.; 1296 Cheote ib. ; 1328 
Cheut CI. E; 1334 Cheut Br. Mus.; 1428 Chiujt Fi^; 1485 
in Chute C. Inq. 

This is certainly a Celtic name, perhaps the same as is 
contained in Preshrtte, below. 

Clarendon ESE of Salisbury. 

1164 Clarendon Br. Mus.; 1204 Clarendon E.L.Pat.; 1227 
Clarendon Ch. E; 1279 at Clarijndone C. Inq.; 12S4: Clarin' 
don Ch. E; 1287 Claryndon C. Inq.; 1316 Claringdon E. 
Pat.; 1341 Clarington ib.; 1491 Claryngdon C. Inq.; c. 1540 
Clarington Leland. 

From *Claringa dun, Claring being perhaps a patronymic 
of Clare, occurring as the name of a witness in CS no. 882. 

Clatford W of Marlborough. 
1086 Clatford DB; c. 1290 Clatford T. Eccl.; 1316, 1428 
Clatford FA. 

The first element is no doubt OE elate, a plant-name, 
denoting 'burdock', 'goose-grass', 'clivers'. At the present 
day, clote in the southern counties is also applied to other 



58 

plants, e. g. 'the coltsfoot', 'the yellow water-lily' (see EDD), 
but it is very doubtful whether the latter meanings are 
old enough to have been present in the pi. n. under notice. 

Note. Clatford CD nos. 1177, 1265 is located by Kemble in 
Wilts., although it obviously refers to some place in the south- 
west of Berks. 

Clench see Clinch. 

Clevancy [klev-censi] E of Hilmarton. 

1086 {in) Clive J)B\ 1232 in Clive Wancij Gh. E; early 
14th cent, m Clive Waiicy TN ; 1316 de Clyve Wauncij ¥A; 
1428 in Clyve Aimcy ib. 

Originally '"^'clif \cFt (pa^m) clife]. It is interesting to notice 
the amalgamation of the distinctive 'Wancy' with the gen- 
uine name. The change of i> e in the first syllable is 
due to weakened stress. 

The AN 'Wancy' refers, according to Jones, p. 207, to 
Radulf de Wancy, who held lands here towards the end 
of the 13th cent. (TN p. 137). 

Ciiffe Pypard [generally pron. Iclijv] S of Wootton 
Bassett. 

1086 (in) Clive DB; 1230 in Clive Pipart CI. E; 1281 Ciiffe 
Piparcl Br. Mus.; 1284 Pypardesclive E,. Pat.; 1290 ad. Clivam 
Ch. R; c. 1290 de Clive (Pippard) T. Eccl.; 1304 in Ptj- 
pardesclyve Ch. E; 1332 Clivepipard Br. Mus.; 1340 Piperes- 
clyve ib.; 1428 in Clyve {Pypard) FA. 

Originally "^''clif, '"^'cet {pcem) clife, the modern name being 
orthographically a contamination of the OE nom. and dat. 
form (the pronunciation, however, representing cleve, cleeve, 
for which see NED). 'Pypard' is an AN name, referring 
to the Eicus Pipard who is mentioned as a tenant here in 
TN, pp. 140, 149, 156 (see Jones, p. 207). 

^ There are several places called Clive in DB, and most of 
them seem to refer to manors at the present Clevancy and 
Ciiffe Pypard. 



59 

Note. CUve CD no. 460 cannot possibly be identical witli 
Cliffe Pjpard (or Clevancy) as it is mentioned among the boun- 
daries of Brokciieherge (= Brokenborongh, Wilts.). 

Clinch or Clench S of Marlborough. 

1329 Cleynche C. Inq. ; 1354 Clench Cal. Inq. 

It seems impossible to explain this name. There is a 
dialectal word clench in Northants., applied to a plant ('the 
corn crowfoot'), but as this word is quite unknown in Wilts. 
at the present day ^, it is naturally very doubtful if it 
occurs in this pi. n. 

Coate E of Devizes. 

1282 Cotes Pat. R; c. 1290 Cotes T. EccL; 1316, 1428 Cotes 
FA; 1490 Cotes C. Inq. 

Originally "^'cotan (plur. of cote f.) or '^cotu (plur. of cot 
n.). OE cote^ cof = 'cottage'. The ME forms quoted show 
substitution of the strong masc. plur. ending. Cf. Coates, 
Sussex (Roberts, p. 49), which is to be explained in the 
same way ; (Roberts' derivation of this name from an ori- 
ginal gen. sing. (OE cotes) is quite impossible). Cf. also 
the rather frequent Coton (e. g. in Cambs. and Staffs.) < 
'■■cotan^ '-'cet (pd^m) cotum. 

Codford St. Mary and Codford St. Peter SE of Heytesbury. 

901 ■\codan ford CS no. 595; 1086 Coteford (three times) 
DB; 1130—35 Codeford Osmund; 1167? Cutiford Br. Mus.; 
1180? Cotesford ib.; 1281 Est Codeford C. Inq. (= St. Mary); 
1309 Estkodeford ib.; 1316 Coteford FA; 1322 Westcodeford 
Ch. R (=:St. Peter); 1327 C{h)odeford C. Inq.; 1413 IVest- 
coteford Cal. Inq.; 1428 Codeford Sancti Petri, C. Sancte 
Marie FA. 

Most probably from ^Ciidayi ford; for the p. n. Ciida see 
Miiller, p. 51. As to Mor ^ in the DB and Br. Mus. forms 



^ The dialectal word for the common crowfoot species is crazy 
(craisey) in Wilts. 



60 

see Zaclirissoii, Stud, i mod. spmkvet. 5, p. 8 f. The t in 
the later forms above is due to assimilation with f (after the 
syncope of c). 'St. Mary^ and 'St. Peter are names of churches. 

Colerne [kald{r)]i^ W of Corsliam. 

108G Colcrnc DB; 11.77 Citlerna Pipe R: 128:> de Oiderne 
Ch. E; 1269 Cullerne, CoUcrn C. Inq.; 1283 in Culernc C\\. 
II; 1316, 1324 de Colerne FA; 1330 de Colorne li. Pat.; 
1428 {in) Colerne FA. 

This name may be derived from '^(Udan cern (cf. Chitterne). 
The existence of a }). n. '-'Cnla (■'Cull) is indicated by 
eulinga gemcere CS no. 227, Ctdingas ib. no. 326, '\'fet Cidingon 
{<*Cidingum) ib. no. 1064, CuUingus Ellis, Intr. 11 p. 306, 
to cidan fcnne CS no. 1082, Cf)to odes felda ib. no. 620. 
The same ]). n. occurs in the local Condinge Suffolk (see 
Skeat: PI. Ns of Suff. p. 72). 

CoUingbourne Ducis \ xtxtw p t ^ i ii 

\ NNW ol Luao-ershall. 
„ Kingston J 

903 Colengahiinmni (Lat. ace.) CS no. 602; 921 on Collenga- 
hiirnan, "^at Colinghurne ib. no. 635 ; 931 wt ColUnga human 
ib. no. 678; 1086 Colingehurne (= C. Ducis), Colehurnc (= G. 
Kingston) DB ; 1234 Colighnrn (^ Ducis or Kingston) CI. 1\ ; 
1256 Colingehurne (= Ducis) Pat. R; c. 1290 Colingehurn Comit.: 
Colingehurn Ahhis (= Kingston) T. Eccl. ; 1323 Colynghurn 
Valence (= Ducis) C. Inq.; 1402 Colynghorne Valence FA; 
1428 Colgnghourne Comitis, Coh/nghourne Ahhatls ib. ; 1479 
Colinghourne Valaunce R. Pat. 

The stream on which these places are situated is now 
called simply 'the Bourne' (a tributary of the East Avon), 
the same which in OE times was called Winferhuma in 
its lower course; see Winterbourne (Dauntsoy), below. The 
patronymic is most probably formed from Cola, for A\hich 
name see Calcutt, above. 

For the distinctive names see Jones, p. 208. 



61 

Combe near Enford. 
1279 de Combe Cal. Rot. Cli.; 1329 Connibe C. Inr,.: U2S 
in Comhe FA. 

OE cunib (see Alcombe). 

Compton XW of Enford. 
c. 1080 of C untune (or = C. Cliamberlayne) Cal. France; 
1086 Contone DB, p. 69 a; 1329 Co7nptou C. Inq.: (n. d.) 
Cumppton Cat. A. D. 

Originally '•'cimib-tun. n for m is due to assimilation 
Avitli t. 

Compton Bassett NE of Calne. 
1086 Contone DB, p. 70 d; 1182 Comtona Bi\M.\\^.\ 1220— 
28 de Cumptone Macray; c. 1225 Ciimton Br. Mus.; 1271 
Cumpton Bassett C. Inq.; 1324. 1402 Compton Bassett FA. 

See preceding name. The manor was formerl}^ in pos- 
session of the Norman Bassett-f amily ; see TX, p. 141. 

Compton Chamberlayne WSW of Wilton. 

1086 Contone DB, 65a; 1250, 1275 Cumpton Cinq.; 1316 
Compton Chamberleyne FA; 1318 Cumpton Chaumberiayne 
Ch. R; 1325 Compton Chamherlayn C. Inq. 
For the distinctive name see Jones, p. 209. 

Conock SE of Devizes. 
1316 de Coneke FA; 1348 de ConnolceR. F-a.t.; 1372 ConnoJc 
Br. Mus. 

This is undoubted^ a Celtic Avord, the same as Irish and 
Gaehc enoe (= hillock, knoll); see 'knock' NED, and Mac- 
bain. The svarabhakti vowel is due to AN infl. ; see 
Zachrisson p. 49 f. Cf. Knook, below. 

Coombe Bissett SAY of Salisbury. 
1086 Cumbe DB; c. 1115, 1158 Cumba Osnuind; early 14th 
cent, de Cumbe TN; 1385 Combebysset Cal. Inq.; 1402 de 
Coiimbe Byset FA. 



62 

OE cumh. 'Bissett' is certainly an AN family name. In the 
time of Henry III, Johis Biset was tenant here; see TN, 
p. 155. 

Corsham [Regis] WSW of Chippenham. 

1001 'fCosehdm CD no. 706; [1015] -fCosham AS Clir. [E]: 
1086 Cosseham DB; 1130 Cosseham H. Pipe li; 1157 Cosse- 
liam Cal. France; 1194 Cossam Hot. Cur.; 1225 Corshd R. 
fin. exc. ; 1230 Cosham, Corsham Ch. R; 1243 Corsham ib.; 
Edw. I Cossam Plac. Warr.; 1284, 1302, 1309, 1310 Cosham 
ib. ; 1316 Cosham FA; 1334 Cosseham Eot. Orig.; 1394 
Cosham Br. Mus. ; 1428 Cosham FA. 

The first element is difficult to account for. The old 
forms quoted show that it cannot possibly have the same 
first element as Corsley, Corston, or Corton (below). Corsham 
may therefore be derived either from ''''Cusan ham, Cusa 
being recorded as an OE p. n., or from ''''Cosan ham, *Cosa 
being perhaps a hypocoristic form of the Celtic Cospatric. 
The change of Cos > Cors- may simply be due to the in- 
fluence of Corsley and Corston. In DB the King is mentioned 
as chief tenant here. 

Note. It is obvious that Corsham cannot be identical with 
(to) cartes hamme CD no. 436, as has been suggested by Kemble. 
Tiie latter place was moreover situated in the extreme south of 
the county (in the vicinity of Bower and Broad Chalk). 

Corsley WNW of Warminster. 

1086 in Corselie DB; 1166 Corselea Vi\)Q E; 1232 Corslegh 
Ch. R; 1233, 1245 Corsleg ib.; 1265—70 de Corsleyghe 
Macray; c. 1290 Corsle Magna T. EccL; 1316 de Corseleghe 
FA; 1369 Cossteye Cal. Inq.; 1402 Corsle Magna FA; 1428 
Parva Corslegh ib. 

This name may be derived from '-''cors-leah {-lea^e), cars 
being the same Celtic Avord that seems to occur in the 
following name, but we may also assume an original '^wf 
Corsan lea^e [Corston (W. of Bath), Soms., occurring as 



63 

Corsan tan {on corsan streame) CS nos. 767, 1287]. Whether 
Corsan is identical with the above-mentioned Celtic Avord 
or is a p. n., it is impossible to determine. 

Corston S of Malmesbur}^. 

1065 Corstuna CD no. 817; 1086 in Corstone DB; 1817 
Crostone C. Inq. 

The place is situated on an affluent of the Lower Avon, 
which is now called 'Gauze brook". This stream is no doubt 
identical with {'\)Coysahiirna, "fCorshorne, mentioned in CS 
nos. 103, 470, probably also with '\Corsbroh CS no. 922, 
'\CoreshroJc CD no. 632 (see besides Akerman's map in 
Archseologia XXXVII: I). The first element is most pro- 
bably a Celtic word, the same as Welsh cors = 'bog', *^marsh"; 
see Pughe-Pryse. 

Note. Corsantune CD no. 457 is not identical with this place, 
as is stated in Kemble, but with Corston, Soms. 

Corton or Cortington SSE of Heytesbury. 

1086 Cortitone DB (prob. identical); 1130—35 Cortun Os- 
mund; c. 1290 Cortyngton{e) T. EccL; Edw. I de Cottyntton 
Plac. Warr. ; 1316 cle Cortone FA; 1428 Cortyngton ib. 

Originally ''"'Cortinga tun, Corting being certainly a patro- 
nymic of the Frisian p. n. Cort {Coert, Curt), for which see 
Winkler, p. 219, and Stark, p. 136. The same p. n. occurs 
in to cartes hamme CS no. 917, which was situated in south 
Wilts, (in the vicinity of Bower and Broad Chalk), probably 
also in ■fCortimwde ib. 1009 (near Bath, Soms.)^ 



^ This explanation of the latter name seems far more plausible 
than the one given by Middendorff, p. 30. according to whom 
the first element contains an unrecorded OE adj. '-'cort, parallel 
to OFris., OS kurt, OHG (MHO, mod. G) kurz (adopted from 
Lat. curtus). As a matter of fact, there is no evidence in 
support of an OE '^'cort (""''curt)', coiiimeede, which is tlie only 
name that Middendorff adduces to support his assumption of this 
adj., is quite satisfactorily explained as above. 



64 

Gorton E of Hilmarton. 

1086 Crosfone DB (prob. identical); 1428 Corston (twice) FA. 

The original form may have been "^'cros-tun. OE cros 
{= rod), found only in local nomenclature, is, according to 
NED, the Norse Jovss, which is adopted from Olrish cros. 
In the present case, however, cros is naturally to be con- 
sidered as an ordinary Celtic survival, as the Wilts, pi. ns 
seem to be quite free from Scand. elements (except p. ns). 

Gorton offers an example of the omission of a stem -6' in 
the middle of a pi. n. (another instance is Garclone, the DB 
form of Garsclou; see below). Hoav are we to explain a loss of 
this kind? In connection with Alderbury, attention has been 
draAvn to the common omission of the gen. 5 of a p. n., 
Avhen it occurs as a first element in pi. ns. In the light of this, 
a plausible reason for the loss of a stem -s in such cases as 
Gorton, Gardone w^ould be that the first element even in 
these names has been considered by the Anglo-Normans 
as the gen. of a p. n. and treated as such. 

Note. The numerous cases in which an unetymological s has 
been inserted in the composition-joint, on the other hand, ought 
to be explained simply as due to analogy with those pi. ns 
which have a gen. s after the first element, i. e. exactly 
the same explanation as has been given for the intrusive -ing- 
(-in-) suffix in such forms as ME Geresindon {- Garsdon), Lut- 
lyngton (= Littleton Drew), mod. Sherrington, Uppington, etc., viz. 
the analogy of pi. ns, in which the first element is a patronymic. 

Coulston, East and West SW of Potterne. 

1086 Govelestone DB; 1199? de GouelestoTi Hot Cur.; c. 1290 
de Govelestone T. Eccl.; 1800 Goucleston Ch. R; 1316 Gouleston 
FA; 1824 Goimeleston Fine It. ; 1428 Gouueleston, Goueles- 
ton FA. 

Obviously from ''-'Gufeles tun, ''-'Gufel being a diminutive 
of the p. n. Gufa. v has here been vocalized to u in ME, 
which u together with the preceding one has given u. Cf. 
Gowesfield, below, and Goivley Oxfs. (< '''cct Gufan lea^e) (see 
Alexander, PL Ns of Oxfs., p. 86); cf. also NE liaivh (< hafoc). 



65 

Co wage another name for Bremilham. 
1275 at Cotviche C. Inq. ; c. 1290 CozvyJc T. Eccl.; 15-10 
Coivych Dngdale. 

From OE cii (= cow) and Wic (here to be taken in the 
sense of 'farm'). The mod. -age is due to weakening. Cf. 
Burbage. 

Cowbridge near Malmesbiiry. 

1409 Coiibryge Phillipps' fines: (n. d.) de Couhrigg{e), dr 
Choubrigge Reg. Malm. 
No comments necessary. 

Cowesfield E of Whiteparish. 

1086 Colesfelde (possibly identical), Cuulestone'^ DB; 1166 
Cuuelesfeld Pipe R; 1206 in Cidefeld Bj.h. CI.; 1211 Cuveles- 
feld Phillipps' ped. fin.; 1272 Colneston Sturmy^ (corrupt), 
CoJeston Spileman^, Coleston Loveraz^ Pat. R; 12^1 Coles f eld 
CI. R; 1294 Covelesfeld Cal. Inq.; 1316 de Couelesfelde FA; 
1319 Covelesfeld Pat. R; 1337 Couuelesfeld Loveras Ch. R: 
1402 Coulesfeld Sturmy et Spylma)/, C. Loveras FA; 1490 
Coulesfild Esturmy, Coulesfeld Spilman C. Inq. 

The first element is no doubt the same as in Coidsfon. 
The name is consequently derived from *Cufeles feld. The 
loss of I in the present name, as compared with its survival 
in the case of Coulston, is due entirely to sound-physiological 
reasons^. 'Esturmy' (Sturmy), 'Loveras', and'Spileman are 
family names, the tAvo former AN, the latter Continental- 
Germanic. 



^ On account of the different terminations there may naturally 
be some doubt about the identity here too, but the places were 
at least situated in the same hundred (Frustfield), and the first 
elements are undoubtedly the same. Cf. the forms quoted from 
Pat. R. 

" Identical according to the editor of Pat. R. 

^ If I had been kept in the present name, a much more 
difficult combination of sounds would have arisen than in the 
case of Coulston (on account of the fricative f). 

5 E. Ekblom 



(o6 

Cricklade [hiJcleid]. 

[1)04] ad Criccaladam Assei-; [905] to Creeca gelade A. Clir. [A], 
to Creoccgelade ib. [D]; [1016] cet Cncgelade ib. [D], cet Crceci- 
lade ib. [E], cet Crecalade ib. [F]; 1086 de Crichelade DB: 
1130 Grechelada, Crelcelade Macray: c. 1170 CriecheladaC^l. 
France; 1231 Crikelad Ch. R; Hen. Ill Kerkelad' Rot. H; 
1255 de CriMelade Pat. R: 1260 Kyrhclad ib. ; 1276 CreJcelad 
Ch. R; c. 1290 CreeMade T. Eccl. ; 1316 f?e Crelldade 
FA; 1319 KiriJcelade, Creeldade Cal. inq. da.; 1376 r>eZ':A-e- 
laude Phillipps' fines. 

The first element of this name is certainly not Germanic, 
For the mere fact that we find such a variet}^ of spellings 
in the AS Chr. indicates that it did not contain an element 
Avhich was part of the AS yocabulary. The name has 
alread}^ been the subject of some discussion. Thus, 
Mc Clure, p. 261, foot-note 3, takes Click- to be connected 
either with Welsh eraig = 'rock\ or Avith cruc = 'mound'. 
Pearson, p. 11, also identifies the element with craig. These 
suggestions seem, however, most unlikely, particularly when 
compared with the explanation given by Duignan in connec- 
tion Avith his discussion of the etymology of Penlcridge 
(Notes on Staffs. PL Ns, p. 115 f.). According to him, Crick- is 
a Celtic word, meaning 'boundary^ 'frontier (the same as 
Irish crioc, crich); see Stokes, p. 98. Consequently Cricklade 
would originally indicate '^the boundary between Mercia and 
Wessex, which was formed by the Thames (OE ^elad here 
= Svater-waj^'; cf. Chapmanslade, Chicklade). Crekkclaiide 
(Phillipps' fines) indicates retention of the long vowel in 
the termination; cf. Chicklaudc FA (Chicklade). The form 
Grechelada (Macray), if not a mere error, may be due to 
{)opular etymology; (according to Camden, p. 102, a Greek 
school is said to have been founded here bv a certain 
Theodorus, Archbishop of Canterbury). 



T\^ 



67 

Crockerton S of Warminster. 

1350 CroJcerton Phillipps' fines; 1463 CroJcerton Gal. Inq. ; 
1467 N. CroJcerton Br. Mus. : 1495 Crokerton C. Inq. 

Originally "^'croccera (or possibly crocceres) tun. OE 
'"croccere [a nomen agentis from crocc{a)] = 'potter . This 
explanation of the first element seems far more probable 
than assuming with Roberts, p. 52, a p. n. '■'Crochere. 

Crofton ENE of Burbage. 

1194 in Corfton Rot. Cur. (possibly iclent.); 1288 Crofton 
C. Inq.; 1316, 1428 Crofton FA. 

Originally '■' croft-tun (= enclosed croft). 

Croucheston E of Broad Chalk. 

1328 Criichesfon{e), Croiicheston C. Inq.; 1340 Cruchedon 
Phillipp's fines; 1373 Cryiicheston ib. 
The etymology is obscure. 

Crudwell N of Malmesbury. 

854 fat Croddewelle CS no. 470; at (Jriddamvijlle Thorpe; 
901 -^de criid{d)ewellc CS no. 586; [956 •\Cruddesetene imere 
CS no. 922]; 1065 Creddewilla CD 817; lOSQ Credvelle T>B 
1180 Credewella Pipe R; 1194 de Credewalle Rot. Cur. 
1222 Credewellie) Macray: c. 1290 de Cnidewelle T. Eccl. 
1316 Credewell FA; 1428 Crudetvell ib. 

The fact that this place is situated near the source of one 
of the head-streams of the Thames points to the probabilit}^ 
that the first element represents the ancient (Celtic) name of 
this stream (the mod. name is 'Swill brook'). This supposi- 
tion is strong!}^ supported by the term -\Cniddesetene imere 
(= ^emcere) CS no. 922 (in the same neighbourhood), Crudde- 
sefene (originally gen. plur.) probably denoting the people 
living on this stream': cf. Wilscetan AS Chr. A. D. 800 (see 
Introduction) and '\fromesetinga (gen. ])lur.) CS no. 1127 
(referring to the r. Frome. Soms.). 



68 

Dauntsey [daan(t)si] SE of Malmesbuiy. 

850 -fDometesig CS no. 457 ; "fidd) Daunteseye, ■\{in) Dametes- 
eye ib. no. 458 ; "fide) Damices eye. '\{in) Dameces eye CD 
no. 263; 854 at Domeccesige CS no. 470; 1065 -^Dometesig 
CD no. 817; 1086 Dantesie DB; 1142—50 Dantesia Os- 
mund; 1162 Danteseia Pipe R; 1178? Dantesi Br. Mus. 
Hen. Ill Dantese C. Inq. ; 1257 of Donteseye Cat. A. D. 
1270 Dauntesa (lat.) Cli. R; c. 12^0 de Daimtes eye T.¥jCq\. 
1316, 1428 Daimtesey FA. 

Originally '^'Domices le^ {te^ here = 'marshy land', as is 
always the case in Wilts, pi. ns). *Ddmic is to be regarded 
as a diminutive form of '^Doma (< ■^Doma), a pet-formation 
of some p. n. beginning with Dom- (e. g. Domfrith, Dbm- 
liere). For the diminutive suffix -ic {-ec) see Eckhardt, p. 345. 
The fact that OE o before nasals only occurred as a 
variant of a (W. Grerm. o before nasals > u in OE) explains 
the a vow^el in the first syllable. The m has in the earliest 
ME been changed into n by assimilation with the following 
(tf). Moreover, the fricative (/) has disappeared through 
assimilation with the following .y. \t for e in the earliest of 
the forms quoted above may naturally as w'ell be due to 
orthographical confusion, on account of the similarity of 
these two letters. Alexander, PL Ns of Oxfs., p. 32, gives 
several examples of such errors.] 

au is due to AN influence; see Zachrisson § 9. 

Dean, West SE of Salisbury. 

1086 Duene DB; 1269 Westdune C. Inq.; 12SI Dene, Deone 
ib.; 1296 Westdoene Pat. U; 1309 Westdeene C. Inq.; 1314 
at Westdune, Dene, Duene ib.; 1320 Westden Pat. R; 1324 
Deone FA; 1371 Westden Br. Mus.: 1402 Deone ¥K; 1485 
West Dene C. Inq. 

OE denu, dene (= valley), the place being situated in the 
valley of an affluent of the r. Test. The ME forms give 
a good picture of the complete confusion of don (OE diln) 



69 

and dene (OE denu, dene) which is so common in English 
place-nomenclature. 

Deptford \detfd{r)d\ on the Wiley near Fisherton Delamere. 

1086 Depeford DB; 1236 Depeford Ch. R; early 14th cent. 
Dujjeford T^ ; VdU Dej^e ford FA; 1SS6 Deope ford Vhillipps' 
fines; 1428 Depeford FA. 

Originally '^'se deopa ford. In the NE pronunciation the 
p has been replaced by t for sound-physiological reasons. 
For u as a representative of OE eo see under Bemerton. 

Derriads SW of Chippenham. 

1227 Derierd Ch. E. 

This' single ME form which has been found indicates 
that the termination was OE ^eard (geardasl) = 'enclosed 
place', the loss of r in the mod. form being due to weaken- 
ed stress. The plur. .;? may quite well be of a later date. 
The first element may go back either to deor{a) (cf. e. g. 
on deor leage CS no. 1108, Deorham ib. no. 1282) or to 
Deoran, gen. of Deora, a pet-form of some p. n. beginning 
with Deor-, of which there are a great number. 

Devizes [ddv-cdziz\. 

1141 — 42 Divisas Br. Mus.; 1146 Divisis Macray; 1149 Divises, 
apud Divisas ib.; 1227 Devizes Ch. R; 1229 Devises ib.; 
1279 Divises C. Inq.; 1290 Dyvises Br. Mus.; 1331 Vises 
CI. li; La Wyses C. Inq.; 1333 Dyvyses ib.; 14:72 'the vyse' 
Cat. A. D.; 1485 Le Devisee C. Inq. 

This name, Avhich has been discussed by Guest, p. 254 f., 
and by Zachrisson, ilnglia XXXIV, p. 319, is an angliciza- 
tion of the OFrench plur. devises, and here certainly 
denotes some boundary line. The suggestion offered by 
Gaest and Zachrisson that the present name may have 
originally indicated the frontier forest between Wales and 
Wilts, seems, however, not to fit in with the geographical 
conditions. It may rather have referred simply to some 



70 

boundary line between two properties, a meaning of devise, 
d'vise, which is still retained in Normandy. 

For the French article and the shortened ME forms see 
Zachrisson. loc. cit. According to Guest, p. 255, Devizes 
was founded in the J 2th cent. 

Dilton 8SW of Westbury. 

1221 in Dultuh R. fin. exc; 1249, 1264, 1275 Didhm C. 
Inq. ; early 14th cent. Bolton TN; 1324, 1402, 1428 Dul- 
ton FA. 

The most [)lausible etymology of this name is '''DyUan 
tun, the first element being a p. n., the same as the one 
contained in Dillington Hunts. (< '''DylUnga tun, see Skeat, 
PI. Ns of Hunts., p. 349), and IhdUnghmn Cambs. (< '"^Dyllinga 
ham, Skeat, PL Ns of Cambs., p. 22). It is very probable, 
as Skeat has suggested, that this p. n. is a nick-name, 
identical with the ME adj. dill, dylle (= dull), which point 
to an OE '^'dyl, dylle (< '-'duljo-), cognate to OE dol (< ''''dido-); 
see \luir NED. Whether the element Dil- in the p. ns Dilmun 
{^Dilmund) and Dilra is the same, it is impossible to say. 
in Dolton (TN) stands for u, which has been considered 
as original, (a not infrequent mistake). 

Note. Dihvorth, Lanes., of which Wyld gives an unsatis- 
factory explanation, probably contains the same first element. 
in ME Dolleworth (quoted by Wyld) is in that case easily 
explained (as in Dolton). 

Dinton W of Wilton. 

1086 Domnitone DB [partly corrupt]; 1268 Donington Pat. 
R; 1816 Donington FA; 1324 JDonynton, Dynton ib.; 1375 
Duyupiton CI. R; 1428 Donyngton FA: Dimyton Cal. Inq. 
(prob. identical); 1492 Dynton C. In(j. 

On account of the comparatiA^ely great number of 
forms with o in the first syllable, it seems necessary to 
assume an original name of two types: '■Dunninga tun 



71 

(without mutation), and '""Dipininga tun (which has sur- 
vived). The patronymic is formed from the p. n. Dunn 
(Dunna). 

On -'/- for medial -ing- in DB see Zachrisson, Stud, i 
mod. sprakvet. V, p. 10 f. 

Ditchampton [ ^ — ] near Wilton. 

1045 cet Dicha^matune CD no. 778; 1086 Dechementone, in 
Dicehantone DB; 1195 de Dichamtoh Feet of fines; 142S 
Dychampton FA; 1491 Dychehampion C. Inq. 

The CD form is obviously the original name. D'lc-hcema 
(beside "^D'lC-hcemena, a form which is indicated by the first 
DB form) is the gen. of '-dlc-hceme, a plural i-stem like 
Engle, Mierce, Nordhijmhre, etc. (consequently denoting 'the 
inhabitants of '^cMc-hant') ; see on this point Napier & Steven- 
son, Crawf. ch., p. 116 f., where several instances of a 
similar formation are given. 

Association Avith the common element -hampton has then 
taken place in the earliest ME (cf. Beckhampton). 

Ditteridge or Ditcheridge near Box. 

1086 Digeric DB; 1167 Digeriga, Dicherigga (latinized forms) 
Pipe 11; 1284 Ditherigg CI. E; 1285 in Dichrugge Ch. R; 
1375 Dykerigge Cal. Inq.; 1378 Dicherich ib.; 1428 in 
Dycherygge FA; 1443 Dylcerygge Cal. Inq. 

From ''■'die-hryc^, the sense of which is obvious. The 
change of tf > t in Ditteridge is due to dissimilation with 
the final fricative consonant. 

The medial p is merely a connecting vowel. 

Note. Alexander is certainly incorrect in explaining Ditchley 
(PI. Ns of Oxfs., p. 94) from '^dice-leage or "dica-lea^e (dice 
being the gen. of the fern, die, and dica gen. plur.), for these forms 
would on the contrary have given mod, ^'Dickleij. OE dlc-leage, 
on the other hand, would become Ditchley by the influence of 
tho independent subst. die (> ditch). 



72 

Donhead St. Andrew ) „.^„ p oi p. i .^ 

^ . , ^ „ ENE ot Shaftesbury (Dors.). 

Donhead St. Mary j J v / 

871 -fDunheued, -\Dunehefda (latinized) CS no. 531; 955 f^o 
dun heafdan ib. no. 917; 956 ■\D'unheued ib. no. 970; 1086 
Duneheve DB (partly corrupt); 1199 Dmineheued Feet of 
fines; 1235 Dunheved Pat. R; Hen. Ill Doneheved Rot. H; 
1279 Donhaved C. Inq.; 1284 de Donhevede (alias Dunhefd) 
ib.; c. 1290 Dunhef{de See Marie) T. Eccl. ; 1316 Doimheved 
FA; 1334 Dounhevid Cat. A. D. ; 1345 Donehevede St. Andr 
Cal. Inq.; 1364 Dounehead St. Mary Phillipps' fines; 1428 
Dunhed Andree, D. Marie FA. 

From *dun-h6afod ('head or top of a down'), -heafdan in 
the 955 form may stand for the dat. plur. -heafdum, 
but it may quite as probably be explained in the same 
way as Brytfordan and. Cellamvirdan (see Britford and 
Chelworth). The distinctive names refer to churches. 

Downton SSE of Salisbury. 

about 670 {to) Duntun{e) CS no. 27; 826 Duntun ib. no. 

391; 905 to Duntune ib. no. 690; 909 Duntun ib. nos. 

620, 621 (prob. identical); 948 in Duntune ib. no. 862; 

997 wt Duntune CD no. 698; 1086 Duntone DB; 1199 de 

Dunnetoh Feet of fines (prob. identical; cf. Dunneheued, 

above); 1284 Dunton Ch. R; 1316, 1402 Dounton FA. 

The sense is obvious. 

Note. Kemble's identification of Duntun, in the charters nos. 
599 and 610, with this place is not convincing. 

Draycot Cerne N. of Chippenham. 

1086 Draicote DB 74c; c. 1170? Draicot Osmund; c. 1180 
Draycotha (latinized) Macray; 1228 Draycot Ch. R; 1304 
in Draycote ib. ; 1402 in Draycote Cerne FA. 

Originally *dr()e^-cot(e). The element dray (OE '''drce^), 
which occurs both in Draycot{t) and Drayton, two very 
common pi. ns all over England, is difficult to account 
for. It seems likely, however, as Skeat (PI. Ns of Cambs., 



73 

p. 9) has suggested, that this word is connected with the 
dialectal dray (of unknown origin) = 'a squirrel's nest', a 
probable sense of the element drceg in pi. ns being therefore, 
according to Skeat, ^place of shelter', 'retreat'. However 
this may be, the fact that the element in question is so 
common in pi. ns, while there is otherwise no trace of it 
in the language, indicates that it is a Celtic word. As a 
second element it occurs in Dundrceg CD no. 816 (probably 
= Dundry, Soms.). *^Cerne' was a French familj^ name. 

Draycot Fitz Payne NW of Pewsey. 
1086 Draicote DB 66 b (prob. identical). 

See preceding name. 'Fitz Payne' is a French family name. 

Draycot Follat SSE of Swindon. 
1086 Dracote DB 71 b (partly corrupt); Edw. I hi Draycote 
Plac. Warr. ; 1307 Dreyhote FolijoM C. Inq. ; 1309 Draicote 
Foliot, of Dreicote ib.; 1327 Draycote Folyot, Drey cote F. ib.; 
1428 in Draycote FA. 

See Dravcot Cerne. For the distinctive name see Chilton 
Foliat. 

Dunkirk near Devizes. 

Although no early references have been found to this 
small place, I have preferred not to leave out the name 
on account of its great interest. It is obvious, that this place 
has been named by the Anglo-Normans after the Flemish 
DunJcerque (DunJcirh). Dunkirk in Kent, Glos., and Staffs, 
are certainly all to be explained in the same way. 

Durnford SSW of Amesbur}^. 
1086 Diarneford, Darneford DB (prob. identical); 1142 — 50 
Derneford Sancti Andrece Osmund; 1158 Durneford ib. 
c. 1163 Durneford Macray; 1198 Derneford Feet of fines 
c. 1220 Deorneford Macray; c. 1235 de Derneforde ib. 
c. 1290 Durneford Br. Mus.; 1308 Great Durneford Cinq. 
1309 Derneford ib.; Edw. Ill Deorneford NI; 1428 M:a 
Durneford, P:a D. FA; 1540 Durriesford Dugdale. 



74 

From an original *se dierna {dyrna) ford ('the secret or 
hidden ford'). The first element is rather common in Engl, 
pi. ns. Beside its regular OE forms dierne, dyrne, derne, 
there must, however, have existed (sporadically) the variants 
'^dearne, ^"deorne. This is indicated by the ME dearne, 
deorne (beside derne), which are also represented among the 
ME forms above [cf. also {'\)deornan mor CD no. 570, p. 78, 
{-f)diornaniviel CS no. 200]. These unmutated forms are 
certainly due to the analogy of OE deamunga, deornuyiga, 
the adv. of dyrne; (for eo in the latter form see Biilbring 
§ 144). 

Durrington N of Amesbury. 

1086 Dermtone DB; 1178? Durentona, Hinedorintona Br. 
Mus.; 1199 in Sineduriiiton, Hindorintona, de Durintoh 
Ivot. Ch.; c. 1200 Derinton Osmund; 1201 de JJerintoh R. 
Oblat, ; King John Ihirenton Dugdale: 1215 in Durintone 
Macray; 1228 in Dirintoh ^. fin. exc. ; 1256 Durinton C 
Inq.; 1270 Durentona, Hinedurintona, Hinedurnetona Ch. E/.; 
1286 Kingderinto7i, Hinderinton ib.; c. 1290 IJiryngtone T. 
EccL; 1816, 1324 Durynton FA; 1428 Dunjngton ib. 

Originally '"Dyringa tun. Whether the patronymic is formed 
from Deora (a shortened form of some name beginning 
with Deor-)y or from Dyra (found on a coin of the time of 
^thelred II, and in the local to dyran treotve CS no. 721), it is 
naturally impossible to decide. It is, hoAvever, by no means 
impossible that Dyra is merely a variant of Deora, formed 
from Dyring, the patronymic of the latter name. Cf. Tud{d)a, 
'^'Tyd(d)a, see Ted worth. For the e-vowel in the first syllable 
see under Biddestone. 

How are we to explain the distinctive Hin{(')- {King-) 
in some of the ME forms? The Secretary of Wilts. ArchcBol. 
Soc, Rev. E. H. Goddard, has informed me that IIin{e)- 
can hardly be a misspelling for Ki^tg-, as the place never 
seems to have been crown property; (this is also unlikely 
from the fact that only one form wdth King- has been 



75 

found). It appears, however, from Rot. Ch. and Ch. E, that 
there were formerly two manors here, and it seems therefore 
probable that Hine- stands for the (ME) adv. In, Inne, Hine- 
durinton being the inner part of the land w^hich is encircled 
by the bend of the r. Avon at this place. For the initial 
h see under Avon. 

Earl Stoke or Eriestoke SAY of Potterne. 

1239 Eriestol- Ch. E; 1316 de Eriestoke FA; lS2d ErhjsfoJc 
CI. E; 1391 EorlestoJce CaL Inq. ; 1431 ErIestoJc Br. Mus. 
Originally '^'cet eorles (or eorla) stocc. OE eorl = 'a man 
of noble rank' (distinguished from a ceorl or ^ordinary free- 
man')^. For OE stoc see under Baverstock. 

Eastcott SE of Potterne. 

1349 Estcote Cal. Inq.; 1500 m Est cote Br. Mus.: 1546—48 
in Escotte ib. 

ISTo comments needed. 

Eastcott near Swindon. 

1488 Escot C. Inq. 

Note. Kerable's identification of jEstcote CD no. 329, yEasi- 
cotim ib. nos. 584, 817, jEscote ib. no. 585, and ^eastcoten ib. no. 
1099 with Eastcott, Wilts, (which of them he refers to we are 
not told) must be incorrect. Of these, Estcote no. 329, and 
Eastcotun no. 817 are obviously identical with Eastcourt, probably 
also Eastcotun no. 584 (see below). eastcote7i no. 1099 was situated 
in south Beds, (see GS no. 659). Escote CD no. 585 seems 
impossible to identify. There are however no reasons for taking 
it to be one of the present Eastcotts in Wilts. 

Eastcourt NE of Malmesburv. 

i/ 

901 -fde Escote CS no. 586; 974 -f Eastcotun ib. no. 1301 
(prob. identical); 1065 ^Eastcotun CD 817; 1222 de Estcote 
Macray; (n. d.) Escote, Estcote Eeg. Malm. 



^ The late OE eorl denoting 'a Danish under-king' (see Bjork- 
man, Loanwords, p. 23f>) can hardly come into consideration hero. 



76 

Originally '''*''east-cot{e), with a late substitution of cou?i for 
cot. Eastcotun may have been Avritten under the influence 
of pi. ns in -tun. 

Easton NE of Devizes. 

1428 Eston FA. 

Original^ '^east-tun. 

Easton (Royal) E of PeAvsey. 

1232 Eston Ch. E; 1251 Eston ib. (prob. identical); 1349 
Easton E. Pat.; 1428 Eston ¥K. 

Jones states as his opinion (p. 228) that this place, not 
being specially mentioned in DB, may have been a portion 
of the large manor of Otone (mod. Wootton Eivers), of 
which the King himself was the chief tenant. This would 
consequenth^ explain the epithet "Eoya?. 

Easton Bassett E of Shaftesbury (Dors.). 

956 fto Estune CS no. 970; Edw. I in Estone Eot. H. 
'Bassett' is an AN family name (see Berwick B.). 

Easton Grey W of Malmesburj^. 

1086 Estone DB 72 c; Edw. 1 in Eston' Grey Plac. AVarr.; 
1316 de Estone Grey FA; 1323 Estone Grey C. Inq. 
'Grey' is a famil}" name. 



Easton Piercy NW of Chipj)enham. 

1086 Estone DB 70 b; Estone ib. 73 a (possibl}^; 1^-^57 
Eston C. Inq. 

'Piercy' is certainly an AN family name, the same as 
'Piers', 'Pierce' (see Bardsley). 

Eastridge NE of Eamsbury. 

1221 Estrigg Pat. E; 1316 de Estrygge FA; 1438 Estrygh 
Cat. A. D. 

OF ''■'east-hryc^; kryc^ = 'ridge' (of a down). 



1 1 



Eastrop near Highwortli. 

Hen. Ill or Edw. I Esthrop Br. Mus. ; Edw. I in Estthropii 
Rot. H: 1328 Estthrop Br. Mus.; 1333 Estrop C. Jnq.: 1335 
Estthorp Cal. Inq.; 1336 Hcsthorp Rot. Orig.; 1Sd2 Esfhorp 
Phillipps' fines; 1402 Esthropp FA. 

OE '^east-porp{-])rop) = 'farni , 'hamlet', throp > trap is 
due to AN influence: see Zachrisson § 2. Cf. Westrop, 
below. 

Ebbesborne Wake on the r. Ebble near Alvediston. 

about 670 {^)07iYhhles human, "^on Ebhleshurnan CS no. 27; 
826 l/o cbles human ib. no. 391; 902 •\(Ef Lhleshurnan ib. 
no. 599 (prob. identi(3al): 905 "fori Ehlcs human ib. no. 690; 
909 \m Ehles human ib. nos. 620, 621 (prob. identical): 948 
\in Ehles human ib. no. 862; {^)on Yhlcshurnan {^Ehleshurnan) 
ib. no. 863; 955 ^of ehheles human ib. no. 917; 956 ^fo 
Ehhshurnan ib. no. 962 (prob. identical); 957 ^cet Ehles- 
hurnan ib. no. 1004 (prob. identical); 961 -^(Et Eblesburnan 
ib. no. 1071 (prob. identical); 986 -\asf Ehleshurnan CD no. 
655; about 995 ■\a't Ehheleshurnan ib. no. 1290; 997 "^on 
Ehleshurnan ib. no. 698; 1086 Ehleshorne DB; 1184 Ehlehurn 
Pipe E; 1205 Ehleshume Cal. Rot. Ch.; 1222 Ehelehom 
Osmund; 1224 Elehurne Walce Macray (corrupt); 1243 
Ehlehurne Pat. R; 1250 Ewelburn, Evelhuru R. fin. exc; 
c. 1260 Eheleshurne-waJce Macrav: 1270 Ehheleshum WaJc 
C. Inq.; Edw. I Eivleshurnc WaJce Rot. H; early 14th cent. 
Ehheshurn TN; 1345 EhhleshomeswaJce CI. R; 1402, 1428 
Ehleshourue {Walce)\ 1428 Ehheshorn FA. 

Originally "^wt Yb{h)eles hurne (human), viz. the affluent 
of the East Avon which is now called 'the Ebble' ^ '^'Yh(b)el 
is a diminutive form of the common OE p. n. Uh{h)a [also 
occurring in Upton (Lovel): see below]. The development of 
the initial y into e cannot possibly be regular, because OE 
'festes' 2/ develops into i in the Wilts, dialects. The e in the 

^ This is evidently a back-formation from the original name. 



78 

j)resent name must therefore be due to the influence of 
some special name or word, possibly that of the Continental 
p. n. Ehulo (see Forssner, p. 62), or perhaps rather of the 
subst. ebh. Cf. Nettleton < '^Nytfelan {Nyttelinga) tiln, in all 
probability from association with the subst. nettle (see below). 
V, w in some of the ME forms is a mistake for b, t)h. 

The manor was in possession of the famil^^ of 'Wake' in 
the 13th and 14th cent. For this name see Bardsley. 

Edington ENE of Westbury. 

[878] to Epan dune AS Chr. [A] (prob. identical); 880—85 
cet Edandune, "fde Ethandtune CS no. 553 (prob. ident.); 
957 Edandun ib. nos. 999, 1347 (prob. ident.); 968 Edyndoyi 
ib. no. 1215: 1086 in Edendone (twice) DB; c. 1290 de 
Edyngdonc, Edinton T. Eccl.; 1354 Edyngdon CI. E.; 1428 
Edyngdon FA; \ ^^2 Edyngdon ^i\lsi\x^.\ 1485, 14:9Q Edyng- 
don C. Inq. 

This place has been claimed as the scene of King Alfred's 
victory over the Danes in 878, on account of the ancient 
camp in the neighbourhood (at Bratton Castle). Among 
those Avho maintain this theory is Stevenson (Asser's Life 
of King Alfred, p. 273), where he also calls attention 
to the probability that Edand/un{e) CS nos. 553, 999, 1347 
is the same place. Edan may represent the gen. of a p. n. 
'■'Eda of unknown origin. For the change of d > d see 
Zachrisson, p. 97. The termination was originally diln. 

Eisey [aisi] near Cricklade. 

775 — 778 "fE.^eg, ('})Esig CS no. 226 (prob. identical); 855 (et 
■\Esege ib. no. 487 (prob. identical); 1086 Aisi DB; 1428 
Eysy FA; 1540 Eysy Br. Mus. 

The termination was certainly OE le^ (= marshy land), 
the hamlet being situated on low ground near the Thames. 
For the etymolog}^ of the first element, it is impossible to make 
an\^ suggestion from the evidence of the old forms which 
have been found. The modern pronunciation must be due 



79 

to the influence of Isis, the name of the branch of the 
Thames that passes here, 

Elcombe SW of Swindon. 

1086 Elecome DB; 1167 Ellecuha Pipe R: 1179 Helleciimha 
ib. (prob. identical); 1250 Ellecumh Ch. R; 1268 of Ellecumhe 
ib.; 1286 Elecumhe C. Inq.; 1316 de Elecombc FA; 1428 
in Elcombe ib. 

Probably from '-'Elian cumb: Ella is most probably a 
variant of uElla, both being shortened forms of p. ns 
beginning with JEI-, El- {< JEdel-, Edel-y, see Mtiller, p. 45. 
For the absence of b in the DB form see Stolze § 34. 

Elcot near Marlborough. 

1402 in Elcote Cal. inq. da.; 1412 Elcof ib. 

The ME forms quoted are obviousl}^ insufficient to explain 
the first element. It may, however, perhaps have contained 
the p. n. Ella, like Elcombe. 

Elston on Salisbury Plain SE of Tilshead. 

1298 Winterborne Elston Cal. Inq.; 1316 Elision FA; 1378 
Eleston Cal. Inq.; 1383-84 Elision Br. Mus.; 1428 Elyston FA. 
Jones, p. 227. states as his opinion that this place was 
included in the 'two knights' fees', held, according to TN 
142, at Orcheston bv Elya(s) Giffard. If this was the case, 
it is most likely that the place is named after him. The 
distinctive name refers to the stream on which the place 
is situated (see Winterbourne Stoke, below). 

Enford N of Amesbury. 

934 Eneclford, to Enedforda CS nos. 705, 706: 1086 Ened- 
forde DB; 1222 de Ejieford ^.h. CI; 1267 Encford Islacraj ; 
1284 Enesford Ch. R; 1285, 1290 Eneford ib.; early 14th 
cent. Enetford TN: 1316 dc Eneforde FA; 1333 Enedford 



80 

Phillipps' fines; c. 1350 Eneford, Endford Br. Mus.; 137 d End- 
ford Phillipps' fines; 1494 Enford C. Inq.; 1540 Endeford 
Duo:dale. 

'The ford of the ducks'. 

Erchfont see Urchfont. 

Eriesloke see Earl Stoke. 

Etchilhampton [locally called 'Ashelton"] ESE of Devizes. 
1194 Echehamt, de Ehelhatoh Eot. Cur.; 1227 Hechelhamf 
CI. R; 1279 Echelhampton C. Inq.; 1288 Hichilhampton 
Dugdale; 1316 Echelhampton FA; 1321 Echelhamton, Hechel- 
amton C. Inq.; 1349 Ethelhampton Cal. Inq.; 1464 £'cM- 
hampton vel Etlielliampton ib. 

Originally *Eccela7i tun or possibly ^'•Eccelan hdm-tmi; for 
the former derivation cf. Beckhampton. ^Eccela may be consi- 
dered as a diminutive, probably of Ecca [for this p. n. see 
Miiller, p. 52]. [The corresponding dim. of Acca would 
more probably have been ''-''jEccela; cf. jEcci.] EtJiel- for 
Eckel- may be due to the common orthographic confusion 
between c and t (see under Dauntsey). The transition of 
// > / in the modern pronunciation is explained by Zachris- 
son, p. 158 f., as an assimilatory process, which may easily 
have taken place when tf was followed by a consonant; 
cf. Wishford, below. For the initial h see under Avon. 

Note. If Ecesatingelone in DB 69 b, 70 a, 74 a. is identical with 
this place, as Jones maintains, p. 213. the form in question must 
be corrupt. 

Everley NW of Ludgershall. 

704 •\Ehurleagh CS no. 108 (possibly identical); 1172 Eueiiai 
Pipe 11; 1265 Eim-le Pat. II: c. 1290 Evcrle T. EccL; 1296 
Evereley Cal. Inq.; 1316, 1428 Everlc FA. 

Originally ''^cet Eoforan {Eoforesl ^) Ica^e, '■'Eofora being a 

^ This form is, however, less probable on account of the total 
absence of any trace of the strong gon. ending in the old forms. 
That the first element would denote Svild boar^ (OE eofor) seems 
quite excluded. 



81 

shortened form of such names as Eoforhwcet, Eofiiruulf, 
etc. Ebur- in the CS form is a latinization of eofor. 

Farleigh Wick or Farleywick NW of Bradford. 

1393 Farleghivijhe Cat. A. D.; 1396 Farlewyl Cal. Inq. 

Originally this place was certainly called simply '^lulc, 
for which see Berwick B. Because of its proximity to 
[Monkton] Farleigh it was later called Farleigh Wick; cf. 
Bremhill Wick, Haydon Wick. 

Farley E of Salisbury. 

1086 Farlege DB 73 c (identical according to Jones); 1109 
—20 Fernelega Osmund; 1215—20 Ferlega ib.; 1227 de 
Farleye Macray ; 1241 Farle Ch. R; c. 1244 in Farlege Macray ; 
1287 Farnle C. Inq.; 1329 Farlegh ib. 

From an original "^cet [p<^m, p<^re] fearn-lea^e. OE fearn 
(= fern) is a common element in English pi. ns. 

Faulstone {folsfnl SW of Salisbury. 

Edw. I in Fallerstone Rot. H; 1328 Fallardeston(e) C. Inq.; 
1376 Fallardeston R. Pat.; 1421 Fallerdeston Cal. Inq. 

The p. n. {*)FaUard (*FaUerd), which is contained in 
this pi. n., seems to be introduced from France (on account 
of its first member, which can hardly be Germanic). Curi- 
ously enough, it has not been possible to find this p. n. 
in its independent form. 

The termination corresponds to OE tUn. 

Fifield [faifi(j)ld] near Enford. 

1086 Fifhide DB 65 c; 1285 Fifide Ch. R; Edw. I Fifhide 
Epi Rot. H; 1494 Fyffhijde C. Inq. [prob. identical]. 

Originally */!/* Mda. A "hid' (earlier hl^id) was in OE 
times a measure of land, *^primarily the amount adequate 
for the support of one family with its dependants; at an 
early period defined as being as much land as could be 

6 E. Ekblom 



82 

tilled with one plough in a year^; NED. The cognate OE 
hhvisc is synonymous in meaning. When hid (Mda) occurs 
as a second element in pi. ns, it has as a rule not preserved 
its form unchanged in the modern name. Cf. Tilshead, 
Tinhead, below. The distinctive 'Ep[iscop]i' of the Rot. H 
form refers to the Bishop of Winchester, who is mentioned 
as the chief tenant here in DB. 

Fifield Bavant W of Broad Chalk. 

1086 Fifhide DB 70 c [identical according to Jones]; c. 1200 
Fifhide Osmund; 1267 Fiffide Escndemoi- Ch. E; ISIG 
Fifhide FA; 1335 Fifide C. Inq.; 1428 Fiffj/de, FtjfftdeFA. 
See preceding name. The distinctive names are family 
names: 'Bavant^ is French, 'Escudemor^ [a Norman rendering 
of ^Scudamor(ey] is stated by Bardsley to be native, 

. Figheldean [faialdi{j)n] N of Amesbury. 

1086 Fisgledene DB (partlj^ corrupt); c. 1115 Ficheldenc, 
FiJceldena Osmund; 1157 F f/Jceldene Macra,y; 1222 Fichelden 
Osmund; 1226 Fighelden, Fichelden Phillipps' ped. fin.; 
1227 FiJcelden Ch. R; 1229 Fighelden Pat. R; 1246 Fichelton 
Ch. R; 1252 Filelden ib.; Hen. Ill Ficledene C. Inq.; 1267 
Fyheldene, Fycheldene Macray; 1285 Fyhelden C. Inq.; 
c. 1290 Figheldon, Figheldene T. Eccl.; 1310 Fighilden Ch. 
R; 1316 Fyghelden FA; 1320 Fygheldene C. Inq.; 1324 
Fyzelden FA; 1428 Fyghelden ib. 

Apparently from an original '-^Fy^elan dene (denu), '^'Fygela 
being probably a diminutive of Fu^, occurring as the name 
of a witness in CS no. 91, or of ^'Fu^a, its w^eak equivalent, 
which seems to be contained in the local {on) Fu^an biorge 
CS no. 598. 

-ch- is nothing but an AN spelling, probably due to some 
miscomprehension of the fricative [gh], and the fact that 
ch in early ME records has the double value of tf and Jc 
in this position accounts for the ^-spellings also in the 



83 

present case, z for g in one of the FA forms is due to 
the orthographic similarity between these letters in the 
mss. Figliel- in the mod. name is an archaic spelling. 

Fisherton Anger in the borough of Salisbury. 

1086 Fiscartone DB (prob. identical); c. 1138 de Fissertone 
Osmund (or = F. Delamere); 1232 Fisherton Ch. B (or = 
F. Delamere); 1272 Fisserton C. Inq. ; 1279 Fisshelfon ib. ; 
1285 Fissereton ib. ; 1308 Fiserton, Fyssehertone ib.; 1309 
Fysscherton, Fysherstone ib. ; 1440 FissJierton AucJier Br. 
Mus. ; 1487 Fisherton Aucher C. Inq. 

From "^fiscera tun. sh in Fisherton, if not a mere spelling 
for sh (see under Steeple Ashton), is due to a native form 
with X, hs (see Bjorkman, Loanwords, p. 137) I for r in 
Fisshelton may be a substitution due to OFrench soundlaws 
(see Zachrisson, p. 142 ff.). 

""Anger^ seems to be a corruption of 'Auchei' (^Auger^), an 
AN family which has been in procession of the manor here 
(see TN pp. 140, 156). 

Fisherton Delamere on the r. Wiley. 

1086 Fisertone DB; Edw. I in Fishertone Eot. H; c. 1290 
de Fissertone T. Eccl. ; 1318 Fissherton C. Inq.; 1324 i'm- 
cherton ib. ; 1491 Fissherton Dalamare ib. 

See preceding name. *^Delamere' is an AN family name. 

Fittleton SSE of Enford. 

1086 Viteletone DB; 1219 in Feteltoh E. fin. exc. ; 1252 
Fitelton Ch. R; 1275 Fitelton C. Inq.; 1279 Fhytelton ib. ; 
1284 Fytelton, Fetelton ib.; 1300 Fiteleton Cal. Inq.; 1302 
Fitilton CI. R; 1316 Fydelton FA; 1330 Fidelton C. Inq.; 
1464 Fetelton Cal. Inq. 

Originally "^Fitelan tiin, Fitela being a p. n. occurring in 
Beowulf and also in the local fitelan sladces crundcel CS 
no. 705 (A. D. 934), which place was evidenily situated in 
the immediate neighbourhood of Fittleton. Its strong 



84 

equivalent Fitel is on record in DB, Ellis, Intr. II p. Ill, 
also rendered as Vitel ib., p. 249, the latter being the name 
of the tenant of the present place and of Fisterherie (Fos- 
bury?) in the time of Edw. the Confessor^. For further in- 
formation on this p. n. see Binz, p. 191 f. As to e for i 
in some of the ME forms see Biddestone. For the inter- 
change between intervocalic d and t in pi. ns see Zachris- 
son, Stud, i mod. sprakvet. V, p. 8 f. 

Flamston SW of Wilton. 

Edw. I in Flamherstone Rot. H; 1354 Flamhardeston Phil- 
lipps' fines; 1428 Flaniberdeston FA; 1440 J^Iamherdeston 
Br. Mus. ; 1625 Flamston Br. Mus. 

Flamhard is a p. n. of Continental provenience; see Forss- 
ner, p. 89. 

Fonthill Bishop E of Hindon. 
Fonthill Qifford SE of Hindon. 

900 {•\)Fimteal {■\)FuntgeaU CS no. 590; 901—924 {^)Fun- 
tial ib. no. 591; Eadgar {■\)Funteal CD no. 610 (possibly 
identical); 984 {■\)funtal CD no. 641; 1086 Fontel DB 65 c 
(= F. Bishop); Fontel ib. 72 c (= F. Gilford); 1199 in Fun- 
tell Eot. Cur.; 1243 Funtell Pat. R; 1257 Funtel Ch. R; 
1284 Funtele ib. ; c. 1290 Fontel [Giffard] Br. Mus.; Fontel 
Epi T. EccL; 1316 Fountell Qifford FA; 1402, 1428 Fim- 
tel(l) Episcopi ib. ; 1428 Funtell Giffard ib. 

The first element may have been OE font, '-'fiint (= foun- 
tain, well), but the second part of the name (which shows 
a great similarity to that of Cke^^hiU) it seems impossible 
to identify. Moreover, the forms quoted from CS and CD 
are not much to base a theorj^ upon, as the charters in 



^ That this Vitel should have given the place its name, as 
is supposed by Jones, p. 238, is, however, by no means certain, 
as the local fitelan sladces crundcel, quoted above, proves that 
a person called Fitela lived here more than a cent, before the 
time of Edw. the Conf. 



85 

which they occur are obviously ME falsifications. It is 
quite clear, however, that -hill in the modern name (just 
as in the case of Bremhill and CherJiill) is a late develop- 
ment, due to popular etymology (referring to the hill close 
to Fonthill Gifford on which stands the sole relic of the 
old Fonthill abbey). 

The distinctive 'Bishop' refers to the Bishop of Winchester, 
who obtained lands here in 900 (OS 590). 'Giffard' is an 
AN family name. In DB Berenger Gifard is mentioned as 
chief tenant at Fontel. 

Fosbury S of Shalbourne. 

1086 Fostesherge DB; Fistesherie ib. [prob. identical but 
corrupt]; 1199 Forsteshia Kot. Ch.; 1230 — 40 Forstebery, 
Forstehere Macray; 1270 Forsteshijria Ch. E-; 1281 Forstes- 
heria Br. Mus.; 1308 Forstehury, Westeforstehury C. Inq.; 
1332 Westforstebiiriih.; 1428 Fostebury FA; 148Q Fostebiiry 
C Inq. 

From an original '-^cet Forstan byrig (with an early sub- 
stitution of strong for weak gen. ending), "^Forsta being, 
no doubt, a pet-formation of some p. n. beginning with 
Forst-. Although no such names can be traced, there is 
little doubt that one or more of them may have existed. 
Whether Frostulf, found on a coin of the time of ^thelred II, 
is native or not, it is impossible to decide. Bjorkman, 
Pers. I, p. 44, gives this name as probably Scand., on 
account of the first member being Frost- and not Forst-. 
It is to be noticed, however, that there existed also a native 
OE frost as a variant of forst (although the latter is the 
more common). As far as the present pi. n. is concerned, 
it can hardly contain the Scand. p. n. (if this really existed), 
as all the ME forms have Forst-, 

Fovant [fovdfit] ESS of Hindon. 

901 ■fFobbanfuntan, -fFobbefunte OS no. 588; 9M po Fobbe- 
funten, '\cet Fobbafuntan CD no. 687; 1086 Febefonte DB 



86 

(partly corrupt); 1194 de Fohhefone liot. Cur.; 1267 de 
Fofunte Macray; 1280 in Fovunte CI. R; Edw. I de Fofunte 
Rot H; c. 1290 de Foffimte T. EccL; 1316 de Fovente FA; 
1329 Foffonte C. Inq.; 1428 Fovent FA. 

Originally *Fohban font (funt) [^'cet Fobhan fontiim {fun- 
tum)}. OE font (*fimt) = 'fountain', 'welF. The first element 
is certainly a weak p. n. '^'Fohhct, occurring also in Fobhan 
tvylle in south Wilts., mentioned among the boundaries of 
Duntim (= Downton) in CS nos. 27, 391, 690, 863. and 
CD no. 698. Note also the local Fobbing, Sussex (1320 
Fobhingge C. Inq., Fobbing TN, Edw. Ill Fobhynge Nl) and 
also Fobing (Beds.) Pipe R. A. D. 1164, which evidently 
consist of the patronymic of the same p. n. 

The development into Fovant is clear. Tiie contraction 
by which b was lost seems to have taken place in the 13th 
cent.; as an immediate result of this contraction, the medial 
/' become voiced. Later on the last syllable was weakened. 
The OE forms in -funtan, -funten probabh' represent the 
OE dat. plur. 

Foxham NE of Chippenham. 

1065 Foxham CD no. 817; 1219 Foxam, Foxham Macray; 
1496 Foxham C. Inq. 

OE '^foxia) ham. Alexander's suggestion that Foxcott, 
Oxfs. may have meant 'a cot Avhose owner trapped foxes' 
seems very plausible, and the same explanation may be 
offered for the present name as well. 

Foxley SW of Malmesbury. 

1086 Foxelege DB; 1227 Foxlegh Gh. R; c. 1290 Foxle T. 
EccL; 1428 Foxele FA. 

Originally '-^a't fox{a) lea^e. 

Fresdon [frezd'n] E of Highworth. 

1262 Fersedon C. Inq.; 1307 Fershesdon ib.; 1335 Freshe- 
don Phillipps' fines; 1343 Freshesden ib.; 1359 Fershesdon- 
ib.; 1360 Fersehedon Cal. Inq.; 1376 Fressheton CI. 11. 



87 

The most plausible origin of this name that can be given 
is *fyrs-dmi [OE fyrs = furze]. If this is correct, it appears, 
however, that the first element has been confused with the 
ME adj. fe7's{c)h, fres{c^h [NE 'fresh'] \ in which case the 
e-vowel in the modern form is also to be regarded as a 
result of this confusion. The possibility of OE fersc having 
formed part of the original name seems quite excluded. 

Froxfield W of Hungerford (Berks.). 

803—805 -^Forscan feld OS no. 824; 1303 Froxfeid Ch. R; 
early 14th cent, ill FrockesfekV TN; 1428 Froxfeid, Froxe- 
feld FA. 

Originally ''''froxa (for sea) feld [OE frox, forsc = 'frog']. 
For scan in the quoted OE form is certainly a mistake for 
Forsc(a), due to the influence of the preceding Mildanhald 
in the OE charter. Cf. cet Froxa felda OS no. 1174. 

Fugglestone St. Peter \faidst'yi\ near Wilton. 

1208 de Fuglestoh Rot. Ch. ; 1280 Foleston, Fuleston, Foleton 
01. R; c. 1290 de Foghelestone T. EccL; 1296 Fouleston 
Pat. R; 1376 Foiigheleston Gal. Inq.; 1428 FoghelestonFA; 
1453 Foivleston Gal. Inq.; 1540 Foideston Dugdale. 

This name is to be derived from ''-'Fu^ules tun, Fugul 
here being certainly the p. n. recorded in LVD; see 
Miiller, p. 40 f. The modern spelling is obviously archaic, 
but the pronunciation shows regular development. Gf. 
Eoulston, W. R. of Yorks, Moorman, p. 75. 'St. Peter is 
the name of a church. 

[Furzley SE of Downton. 

This name is inserted only because of Kemble's identi- 
fication of ■\fyrslege GD no. 774, -fFuresleage no. 1052, and 



^ The fact that s and s(c)h (sc) were not kept apart in AN 
orthography makes it easy to understand how a confusion of 
this kind might take place. 



88 

Fyrsleage nos. 1117, 1140 with this place; there seems, 
however, to be no reason for this statement, if we examine 
the charters in question. The modern form, however, in- 
dicates an original "^cet fyrs-lea^e (OE fyrs = furze).] 

Fyfield [faifi(j)ld] W of Marlborough. 

c. 1290 Fifhide T. EccL; 1300 Fyfhide Ch. E (prob. iden- 
tical): 1428 Fyfyde FA; 1559 Fyfelde Br. Mus. 
See Fifield, above. 

Garsdon E of Malmesbury. 

701 ■\Gersdune CD no. 48; 1086 Gardone DB; c. 1291 Geres- 
don, Geresindon T. Eccl. (prob. identical); early 14th cent. 
Gareston TN; 1428 Garesden FA; (n. d.) de Garesdone, de la 
Garstone Eeg. Malm. 

Apparently from OE '-'■'gcers-{grces-)dun [gcers, grces = grass]. 
For the loss of the final .s* in the first element of the DB 
form see Gorton, above. The intrusive -in {-ing) in one of 
the T. Eccl. forms, a not uncommon phenomenon in Engl, 
pi. nomenclature, is due to the influence of pi. ns in which 
the first element is a patronymic [cf. e. g. Sherrington < 
OE *scearn-tiln, below]. 

Gastard 8W of Chippenham. 

1167 Gatestert{a) Pipe R; 1112 de Gatesterd ihr, 1177, 1178 
Gateherst (twice) ib.; 1179, 1184 Gatestert ib.; 1230, 1233 
Gatestert Ch. E,. 

In all probability from an original '^gdt{a)-hyrst [OE gat = 
shegoat; hyrst = hurst, grove]. The first stage in the develop- 
ment of this name seems to have been early ME ^Gateshijrst 
(through insertion of an unetymological .9 in the composi- 
tion-joint). After syncope of the medial e in this form, 
metathesis of t and s has taken place, the immediate result 
of whicli was '''Gasterst (the second element weakened) and 



89 

then '"^Gastert (the loss of s being due to dissimilation with 
the preceding st). '^Gastert has then given mod, Gastard 
by further weakening of the second syllable. ME Gatestert 
must be explained as a contamination of the ME variants 
*Gates-herst and ^Ga-stert\ (cf. Bincknoll, above). 

Goatacre SW of Wootton Bassett. 

1348 Gatacre Cal. Inq. ; 1408 Gotagre ib. (both prob. iden- 
tical). 

This name corresponds to OE "^'gat-cecer, the sense of which 
is obvious. 

Gomeldon SE of Amesbury. 

Edw. I in Gomeledon E,ot. H; 1311 ^e Gomeldone, Gonieledon 
C. Inq.; 1326 Gomeldon ib. ; 1658 GumUeton Br. Mus. 

The first element obviously contains the p. n. Gamal, 
Gamel, or perhaps rather its weak form "'Gamela (found in 
the latinized form Gamelo) ^ The p. n. is of Scand. origin ; 
see Bjorkman, Pers. I, p. 45 f. The termination was OE 
dun. For the inorganic h in the Br. Mus. form see Horn 
§ 158, 2. 

Gore NW of Tilshead. 

1086 Gave DB; Edw. I Gares Rot. H; 1369 La Gore 
Cal. Inq. 

OE gar. This name refers to one of those ridges of the 
downs which extend in parallel lines here and have much 
the same shape as spears. 

Grafton, East and West near Burbage. 

1086 Graftone DB; in Gj-astmie (three times) ib.; 1130 
Graftona H. Pipe R; 1222 Graftuh R. L. 01. ; 1225 Grafton 
Pat. R; 1230—40 de Graftone Macray; 1308 Westgraftone 
0. Inq.; 1324 Graffton FA. 



^ The OE (poetical) adj. gamel, gamol can naturally not come 
into consideration here (cf. Aldbourne). 



90 

Either from OE '•^graf-tun {graf = grove) or from '^grcef-tun 
{grwf = grave, trench), the latter alternative being, however, 
not quite so probable on account of the rocky nature of 
the soil. The common orthographic confusion between / 
and s is due to the similarity of these letters. 

Greenhill near Wootton Bassett. 

1408 Gre7iehuU Cal. Inq. 
No comments necessary. 

Grims Ditch ancient earthwork near Salisbury. 

956 grimes die CS nos. 934, 985; 1045 Grimes die CD no. 
778; 1887 de Orymesdiche Cal. Inq. 

Grim is a p. n. of Scand. origin; see Bjorkman, Pers. 1, 
p. 50. Cf. Grims Dijke, Oxfs. (also called ^Devil's Dyke*), 
which has obviously the same origin {Dyke representing 
the OE dat. form); see Alexander, PI. Ns of Oxfs., p. 117 ^ 

Grimstead, East and West SE of Salisbury. 

1086 Gremestede DB; Gramestede (twice) ib. [prob. identical]; 
1160 Grenested Pipe li; 1162 Gremesteda ib.; 1167 Grenesteda 
ib.; 1200 Gr im estude H. Ohlsit.; 1227 GrymstedM3iCY3,j: 1248 
Grimisted, de Grimstede ib.; 1245 de Grymstede ib.; 1258 
de Grimmested' R. fin. exc. ; 1269 Estgremsted C. Inq. : 
1281 Est Grymstede ib.; 1287 Grimsted, Grymesteden, West- 
grymstedeii, Estgrymstede ib.; 13th cent, de Grenestede, Gnm- 
stede, Grinestede hiher Yuh.; 1314: Istgrimstede C. Inq. ; 1402 
de W estgrymstede FA. 



^ The suggestion that Grims Vitch (Dyke) might contain OE 
grtma (*^spectre^), the name consequently being equivalent to 
'witches' work^ (see Gruest, p. 149, and Alexander, loc. cit.), seems 
most improbable. The alternative 'Devil's^ (Dyke), which has 
suggested this explanation, may be due simply to old traditions 
about the origin of the earthwork in question. The explanation 
of the element Grim- offered b}^ Guest, p. 150 f., seems too 
improbable to be discussed. 



91 

Originally '^'Grimes stede [OE stede = place]. For Grim 
see preceding name. Gren- (Grin-) for Grim- in some of the 
ME forms must be a pure mistake, perhaps due to associa- 
tion with the two Grinsteads in Sussex, for which see 
Koberts, PI. Ns of Sussex, p. 74. For e as representing 
OE i in DB see Stolze § 9. a in Gramstede DB and the 
final -n in two of the C. Inq. forms are clearly errors. 

Qrittenham W of Wootton Bassett. 

850 -\ad GruteJiam[es suth hele] OS no. 458 [prob. identical] ^; 
1065 •\Grutenham CD no. 817; c. 1290 Gretenhm T. Eccl.; 
[n. d.] Grutenham, Gruteham, Grucenham Heg. Malm. 

The origin of this name is not clear. If, however, the 
first element represents a p. n., this was probably the 
same as is contained in Gi^ittleton; see below. The termina- 
tion seems to have been OE ham. 

Grittleton NW of Chippenham. 

940 -^at Grutelingtone CS no. 750; 1086 Gretelmtone DB; 
1216 Gretelintoii R. L. CI.; Hen. Ill Greteling{e)ton Abbr. 
Plac; 1324 Gritelyngton FA; 1330 Gritehjiigton Ch. E: 
1337 Gruttelyngton V\\i\\\\)])^' fines; 1338 Grutelijngfon CI. R; 
Edw. Ill Grutlyngtonl^l\ 1428 Gretelyngton, GrythyngtonYK. 
The first element obviously contains the patronymic of 
a diminutive p. n. No suitable p. n. is, however, on record; 
[the Scand. Gyrd (for which see Bjorkman, Pers. I) can 
hardly come into consideration, as the old forms of the 
pi. n. have in every case r followed by the vowel]. 
We may therefore be allowed to construct a p. n. '^'Grut(a) 
or '^Gryt{a), which may be concealed in this pi. n. Grittleton 
may thus be derived from ''^Grytelinga tun. Cf. '\{on)Gretindune 
CD no. 730, which seems to contain the same p. n. On 
the ME forms with e for i (y) in the first sj'llable see under 
Biddestone. 



^ The corresponding charter in CD has Grete- instead of 
Grute-. 



92 

Groundwell N of Swindon. 

1086 Cirendewelle DB; early 14tli cent. Grundeivell, Grun- 
dewlle TN; 1329 Grimdeswell C. Inq.; 14:28 Grundeivell ¥A. 
The termination is WS iviell(e), wijll{e). For the first ele- 
ment, it is, no doubt, the same as that which occurs in (ow) 
grinde ivylles lace CS no. 1093, grindan hroc ib. no. 544, 
and -fgrynden broJc ib. no. 1187 (the tw^o latter representing 
one and the same brook in Hants.). The most probable 
explanation of the element in question is to assume, w^ith 
Middendorff p. 61, an OE ''"grmde f. (or *grmda m.?) = 'gravel', 
'shingle', cognate with grindan, on the ground of Frisian 
grind, grint (Middle Fris. grinde, grint)^. The development 
into mod. Ground- is to be explained as due to popular 
etymology, caused by the AN spelling Grand- (u repre- 
senting an older y). Gi. Roundway, below, the development 
of which seems to be quite analogous. For the e in the 
DB form see Stolze, p. 17. 

Groveley (Wood) NW of Wilton. 

940 -fgrafan lea CS no. 757; 1086 (foresta de) Gravelinges 
DB; 1160 Graueling Pipe E; 1161 Grauel ih.; 1167 Grauelea 
ib.; 1178? Graueling Br. Mus.; 1199 Graveling Eot. Ch.; 
1222 Graveling Pat. E; 1229 Gravening CI. R; 1270 Grave- 
ling Ch. E; 1280 Gravelinges C. Inq.; 1282 Gravelingges 
ib.; 1283 Groveley ib.; 1288 Gravele ib.; 1289 GraveUnge 
ib.; 13th cent, de Gi^aveninge hihev mh.; ISIQ Grovle Gl.lR.: 
1319 Graveley C. Inq.; 1341 Grovle Cal. Inq.; 1402 Grovc- 
legh FA. 

The CS form above does not allow us to assume OE 
graf (= 'grove') as the first element of the original name. 
But the name is easily accounted for, if we assume an 
original "^'grcefan leak fcef grcefan leage), the first element 



^ related by gradation to Scand. and German, grand (of the 
same meaning). 



93 

being the gen. sing, of OE "^gr^fa (or ^gr^fei.'^) =' brushwood* 
(onty recorded in oblique cases). This word, which is 
cognate with OE graf (NE 'grove'), exists at the present 
day as greave in the dialects; see NED, EDD, and Crawf. 
Ch. p. 61 f. The OE form assumed could certainly not 
have given Oroveley by regular development, but what is 
more natural than a confusion in ME of the genuine first 
element and graf, which had much the same meaning? 
grafan in the CS form is therefore to be considered as a 
ME falsification of the OE form. PI. ns which seem to 
contain the same first element are Graveney, Kent, occur- 
ring as "f Grafan ma {^Grafon cea) in several OE charters, 
and Gravenhurst, Beds., found as Gravenhurst Liber rub., 
Gravenhurste Cal. Inq. (this explanation of the latter name 
being more likely than the one given by Skeat, PI. Ns of 
Beds. p. 33). 

The form Gravelmg(es), which in the ME period seems 
to have been in frequent use beside the genuine name, must 
be due to the influence of Gravelines, the French (Flemish) 
seaport on the Channel (occurring in 1229 as Graveling 
CI. E/, 1241 Graveninges, Graveling' ib.). For the transition 
of -ling > -ning see Zachrisson, p. 140. 

Hacklestone SSE of Enford. 

1286 Aclestou CI. R; 1367 HacJcelston Cal. Inq.; 1403 
HaJcleston Phillipps' fines; 1490 Hacleston C. Inq. 

Originally '-'Hacceles (Hceecelesl) tun, or perhaps *Acceles 
tun, the first element being a diminutive formation of the 
p. n. Hacca, or Acca. The alternative '-^Acceles tun has 
been suggested for two reasons: 1) the fact that initial 
A is a rather unstable sound in the dialect of this district, 
2) the adjoining Haxton (see below), which may have 
influenced the present name. 

Ham S of Hungerford (Berks.). 
93L cdt Hamme, ■\of Hame CS nos. 677, 678; 1086 Rame 



94 

DB; 1284, 1300 Hammc Cb. 1^; 1316, 1428 de Hammr 
FA. 

OE ham{m) {= 'enclosed meadow'); see under Bremilham. 

Hamptworth ESE of Downton. 

1269 Hampteivorthe C. Inq. ; 1281 Ham/pteivorth ib. ; 1428 
Hampteiuorth FA. 

Probably from "^'ham-weorp, wbich may have meant muck 
the same as hmi-stede, ham-tun, viz. 'homestead'. An original 
^cet (pmn) hean tveorde is excluded in the present case be- 
cause of the low situation of the place. Cf. Bathampton. 
The intrusive -pt- must be due to the influence of the 
common Hampton. 

Hanging Langford NW of Wilton. 

1337 Honyngelangeford Rot. Orig. ; 1428 Hangijng Langeford 
FA; c. 1540 Hanging Langforde Leland. 

The distinctive 'Hanging' refers to the situation of the 
place on a steep hill-side (below Grovely AYood); cf. Hang- 
indehluntesdon TN (see Blunsdon). One of the Langefords in 
DB may also refer to this place, according to Jones that 
on fol. 68 d. 

For further information see Steeple Langford. 

Hankerton NE of Malmesbury. 

680 -^de Hanehjntone CS no. 59 A; 901 '\Hanekijntone 
{^Hanecintun) ib. no. 589; 1065 -^Honehynton CD no. 817; 
1222 Hanekinton Macray; c. 1290 HaneJcenton T. Eccl. ; 
Edw. Ill de HaneJcyngtone NX; 1367 HanJcynton CI. R; 
1428 Hanketon FA; 1491 HanJcerton C. Inq.; 1540 Hankenton 
Dugdale. 

Originally '■Hanecan (Hanecingal) tun, '"^Haneca being a 
diminutive of Hana, a p. n. which occurs on a coin of 
King Eadmund I, and also in the local hanan ivelle CS no. 
588. The present diminutive is on record in Hanecan 
hamme CS nos. 821, 822, and another dim. form of the 



95 

same name is Honoc in LVD; see Mliller, p. 73. The late 
change of n > r seems to be due to dissimilation with the 
■n of the first syllable. 

Hannington WNW of Highworth. 

1086 Hanindone DB; 1226 Hanendon Pat. R; 1273, 1282, 
1290 Hanedon C. Inq. ; 1316 Hanyngdon FA; 1324, 1428 
Ranyndon ib. ; 1428 Est Hanynton ib. 

From '■''Haninga dun; (the place is situated on a down). 
For Rana see preceding name. 

Hardenhuish [locally called 'Harnisli ] NW of Chippenham. 

1086 Hardenehus DB; 1177 Hardehiivis Pipe R; 1257 
Herdenehywys C. Inq.; 1290 of Hardene Hyivich ib.; 1301 
Hardenhitvish Ch. R; 1310 Hardenhiwisch C. Inq.; 1316 de 
Hardnyshe FA; 1428 in Harden Hyivysshe ib. ; 1490 Harden- 
hysli C. Inq. 

Originally ''^'Heardan (or possibly '^' Hear ding a) hlivisc, 
'^'Hearda being a pet-formation of some p. n. beginning 
with Heard-. OE huvisc is cognate with h'ld Qii^id) and 
was used as a synonym of this word; see Fifield. 

Note. Bircli's identification of -fheregeardingc hiioisc CS no- 
469 with Hardenhuish, Wilts., cannot possibly be correct, for, 
apart from the fact that there is nothing in the charter indicat- 
ing this identity, it is to be noticed that even the oldest of 
the ME forms have a in the first syllable. 

Harnham, East and West adjoining Sahsbur}?-. 

G 1115 Harnham Osmund; Hen. Ill Estharnham Br. Mus.; 
1272 Harham, Est Harnham, West H. C. Inq.; Harham 
Fine R. ; 1273 Harham C. Inq.; 1277 Westharham Fine 
R.; c. 1290 Harenh'm T. Eccl.; 1300 Westharnam Pat. R; 
1316 West Harneham FA. 

This name may represent an original "^Haran ham as 
well as ^Odt (pd^m) haran hdme; OE hdr (hdra) certainly 
occurs in a number of OE pi. ns (as appears from Kemble's 



96 

index); it seems, however, as though some of these pi. ns, 
on account of their second element, more probably contained 
a p. n. ^Hara, used as a nick-name (= 'the grey one^) ; such 
names are e. g. haran dene CD no. 133 and haran lea ib. 
no. 507. 

Hartham NW of Corsham. 

1086 Heortham (three times), Hertham (three times) DB (all 
these manors were probably at Hartham); 1181 Hertham 
Pipe E; 1272 Hertham C. Inq. ; Edw. I Hartham Br. Mus.; 
1316, 1428 Hertham FA; 1486 Hertham C. Inq. 
From Vieor{o)t{a) ham; OE Aeor(o)^ = 'hart^, "stag". 

Hatch S of Hindon. 

1199 de Hache Eot. Cur.; 1282 in Hacche Ch. E; 1287 de 
Hachche C. Inq.; 1316 de Hacche FA; 1325 Weshacch C. 
Inq.; 1331 Westhach Phillipps' fines; 1378—84 E. Hatch 
Br. Mus. 

This name answers to OE hcec(c) = 'hatch^, 'gate', 'wicket'. 

Haxton (Down) W of Ludgershall. 

1172 Hakenestan Pipe E; 1212 de HaJcenestoh E. L. CI.; 
1239 Haheneston Ch. E; 13th cent. Hacnestone Liber rub.; 
1330 Hakenestone C. Inq.; 1365 HaJcenestone Br. Mus.; 1454 
Hahjston Cat. A. D. (prob. identical). 

The first element contains the Scand. p. n. Hacun, Hacon, 
for which see Bjorkman, Pers. I, p. 60. The termination 
was probably OE tun. 

Haydon NW of Swindon. 

c. 1290 de Heydone T. Eccl. ; 1379 Haidon Br. Mus. ; 1428 
in Haydone FA. 

Undoubtedly from OE '^seo heage dun (the high down). 
As to heage for hea see Sievers § 295, note I. Cf. Heywood 
and Highway, below. 



97 

Note. In this connection attention may be drawn to two 
Lanes, pi. ns: Healey and Heywood, which seem unsatisfactorily 
accounted for by Wyld. The former of these names seems 
to be a regular development from an orig. '^'(Bt (pa^m, p^re) 
hean lea^e, in which case its ME forms beginning with Hay- 
(quoted in Wyld) are easily explained from hea^an, used as a 
variant of hean in the original name. As for Heywood, it is 
certainly derived from OE *se heaga ivudu. 

Haydon Wick near Haydon. 

1299 Haydonwylc Cal. Inq. ; 1394 in Hay clone uijJce Br. 
Mrs.; 1428 in HnydonestvyTce FA. 

The original name of this place must have been simply 
'hvtc, '^cet {pcem) luice, for which see Berwick B. The dis- 
tinctive name refers to the neighbourino- Haydon. Cf. 
Bremhill Wick, Farleigh Wick. 

Hazelbury N of Bradford(-on-Avon). 

1001 Ifctt Eeselberi CD no. 706; 1086 (dc) Haseberie DB 
(four times, all probably referring to Hazelbury); early 
14th cent, in HeseWe TN; 1316 Haselbury FA; 1324 
Hasselhury ib. 

Originally '^cet [pd;re] hcesel-hyrig. Medial I in pi. ns is 
occasionally omitted in DB; see Stolze S 30. 

Hazeldon near Tisburv. 

Edw. I in Haselden Eot. H; 1378—84 Hazeldon Br. Mus.; 
1428 Haselden FA; 1493 Hasilden C. Inq. 

Originally ''^hcesel-dun (the place being situated on the 
slope of a down). 

Heddington N of Devizes. 

1086 Edintone DB; 1237 Hedlintim Ch. E (corrupt); 1316 
Hedington FA; 1320 Hedynton Pat. E; 1428 Hedyndon, 
Edyngton FA. 

Most probably from "^Hedinga tUyi, the first element being 
a patronymic of '"^Hod, or "^Hoda. This p. n., which is 

7 E. Ekblom 



98 

found in several OE local names, e. g. Hades ac CS no. 
1282, hodan hlcew ib. 899, of hodes hlceive ib. 687, hodes 
mcere ib. 1199, hodan mere CD no. 767, is probably the same 
as occurs in the mythological [Rohiri] Hood^. Cf. Hodson, 
below. For the omission of // see under Avon. 

Hewish see Huish. 

Heytesbury SE of Warminster. 

1086 Hestrehe DB (the termination corrupt); 1109 — 11 Heh- 
tredeberia Macray; c. 1115 Hegtredehiri Osmund; 1158 Hec- 
tredeMri ib.; 1159 hehtrebia Pipe K; 1165 — 70 de Hegtrede- 
herie Osmund; 1179 Hictredeheria Pipe E;; 1183 Hichtredes- 
beri, Heichtredeberi ib.; 1194 Hegtretesbuf, de Hettredebrie, 
Hectretesbri P-ot. Cur.; c. 1200 de Hechtredeburie Osmund; 
King John Hecdredhere Br. Mus.; 1214 Hecthredebif Pot. 
Ch.; 1226 HechgtrideUrye Cal. Pot. Ch.; 1227 Heitrebir 
CI. P.; 1269 Hegtredeburi C. Inq. ; c. 1290 Heghtredehury 
T. EccL; 1324 Hezestrehiuiy), Hegstredehur{y) FA; 1328 
Westheghtre{de)bury, Istheghtredehiiry C. Inq.; 1S29 Hextred- 
bury R. Pat,; 1383 Heyghtredbury ib.; 1384 Heitredbury 
Cal. Rot. Ch.: 1402 Heyghtresbury FA; 1428 Heghtre{de)s- 
bury ib.; 1533 Heightredesbury, Heytysbury Br. Mus.; c. 1540 
Heitredesbury Leland. 

The first element can hardly contain anything but the 
Scand. p. n. '^Estrid (occurring in DB as Estred, in 
Exon DB as Estrit: see Bjorkman, Pers. I, p. 38). In 
connection with the discussion of Brigmerston, attention 
has been drawn to the fact that the combination st mav 
sometimes be an AN renderintr of OE lit. In the lio^ht of 
this, the development of the present name is easily explained 
as due to an early substitution of the genuine st in the first 
element by ht (glit), by which the first syllable must have 
coincided Avith the ME adj. hegh (liey). The few ME forms 

^ In some OE pL ns *Hod (^Hoda) may actually refer to this 
mythological person himself, as is assumed by Bradley (Academy, 
Sept. 15, 1888) and Binz. p. 222, foot-note. 



99 

which reflect the original first syllable are, as is seen, 
those of DB 1 and FA (A. D. 1324). 
The termination answers to OE hyri^. 

lieywood N of Westbury. 

1224 Heiivode Phillipps' ped. fin.; c. 1460 Heywode Cal. Rot. 
Ch.; 1496 Heivode C. Inq. 

From an OE ^se liea^a wudu. Cf. Haydon. e for ei in 
Heivode may be an AN spelling; see Zachrisson, Stud, i 
mod. sprakvet. V, p. 16. 

Highway NE of Calne. 

1086 Hkvi (prob. identical). Hiivei DB; 1214 hveia E. Oblat. 
(latinized); 1219 Hyivey, (^e F^(;e?/e Macray ; 12.20 Hiiveia i^d.\ 
1232 Hyiueie Ch. E; Edw. I in Hey way e, Hywey Plac. Warr.; 
1316 de Hijweye FA. 

Originally ''^se hea tveg, or rather "^'cet {pcem) hean we^e. 
Unlike Haydon and Heywood, the first element has in this 
case been influenced by the independent adj. 

Highworth 

1086 de Wide DB; 1091 Wortha Osmund; 1158 Wrda ib.; 
1194 de Wurpe Rot. Cur.; 1231 Hey worth CI. R; Hauteivorfh 
Pat. R; 1257 Alta W^horth Ch. R; 1262 W{o)rthe C. Inq.; 
1276 Worth Br. Mus.; 1289 Hautewrth Pat. R; 1316 de 
Heyworthe FA; 1352 Heyyheivorth Phillipps' fines; 1428 
Hyworth FA. 

The original name was obviously simply *iveorp {ivorp, 
tviirp, ivyrp)), for which see Atworth. For d in Wrde, 
Wrda see Zachrisson, p. 115 f. In two of the ME forms 
the first element has been replaced by the corresponding 
French adj. Jiaiit. 



^ The initial h is here quite unimportant, h in this position 
being a most unstable element in the DB forms; see Stolze § 48. 



100 

Hilcott WS\^^ of Pewsej. 

1194 in Hulcote Eot. Cur. (prob. identical); 1816. 1428 dc 
Hulcote FA. 

OE '■'hyU-cot{e), the meaning of which is clear. 

Hill Deverill S of Warminster. 

1086 Dcvrel DB' [see the foot-note under Brixton D.] ; 1130 
—35 Hull Osmund; 1206 Deverhill U. h. CI: 1220 Hidl 
Osmund; 1316 de Hidle FA; 1324 Hulledevcrel \h.: c. 1330 
in Hulle Dcuerel Br. Mus.; 1428 Hidl FA. 

OE hyll. For the distinctive Deverill see Brixton D. 

Hilmarton NNE of Calne. 

1086 Ad/ielmertone (identical according to Jones), Helmcrin- 
tone, in Hehnertune DB; c. 1290 Helmerton T. EccL; 1300 
Helmerton Ch. E. ; 1428 Helmerton FA; 1576 Hilmerton 
Br. Mus. 

From '■'Hehnceres [or possibly '■'Helmceringa] tHu: '•Helmcer 
(< ^Helm-mcdre) is not recorded in OE, but occurs in DB as 
Helmerus [Ellis, Intr. II, p. 335]. If Jones is correct in his 
identification of Adhehnertone [DB 71 d.], which it has been 
impossible for me to settle, the initial Ad- must naturally 
be the Lat. preposition, which has been taken as belonging 
to the name. For the raisini>- of e > i in ME see Mors- 
bach § 109. 

Hilperton NE of Trowbridge. 

1086 Helprintone, in Helperitune, in Helperintone DB; 1205 
de Helpringetoh E. Oblat.; 1285 Hiil/prington Cal. Inq. : 
1288 Hilprynton Dugdale; c. 1290 de Hulpruggtone T. Eccl. ; 
1316 de Hulpryntone FA; 1405 Hulpryngton Br. Mus.; 
1415 Hylprington Cal. Inq.; 1423 Hulpcrton ib.; 1428 
Hulpurton, Hidprynggton FA. 

The original first element is made up of the patronymic 
of a p. n. beginning with Help- and with a second member 
beginning with r. Helpric is the only p. n. of this kind 



101 

which is on record in OE, but the compound '''Helpred may 
also have existed (cf . the Continental Hilprad, Helfrat : see 
Forstemann, Pers.). Hilperton is therefore to be derived 
from '^Helpricinga (or "^'Helpredinga) tmi, the development 
being exactly analogous to that of Alderton (NW of Gritt- 
leton) and Cholderton (see above). 

The w-vowel of the first syllable in some of the ME 
forms stands for a secondary ij (< i). [For the change of c > i 
see Morsbach § 109.] 

• 

Hindon NE of Shaftesbury (Dors.). 

1284 Hyneton, Hynedon Ch. E; Edw. I in Hynedon Rot. H; 
1332 Hynedon Ch. E; 1401 Ryndon Br. Mus.; \A02 Hyndon. 
FA. 

The etymology of this name is not quite clear. The first 
element seems, however, to be the same as in Hinton, 
Suffolk (DB Hinetuna), which name is derived by Skeat 
from OE "^'hlna tun, lima (fugna) being the gen. of hltvan 
(M^cin), a plur. subst. = "^members of a family or household', 
'domestics' (cognate with Jii^id, lud). 

The original termination was in that case probably tiin^ 
as dun would hardly give a likely meaning. 

Hinton, Great ENE of Trowbridge. 

1316 Henton FA; 1485 Henton C. Inq. : 1491 Henton 
Br. Mus. 

This name is certainly of the same origin as (Broad) 
Hinton. It is a small village situated on the edge of a 
plateau. 

Hinton, Little E of Swindon. 

854 '\Hynyton, ^Hyneton, '(HyHctiinc CS nos. 477, 478; 
Hen. Ill de Hyneton Eot. H; 1285 Hyneton Ch. E [prob. 
identical]; c. 1290 Hyneton T. Eccl. ; 1300 Hyneton Ch. E; 
1316 de Hynetone FA; 1428 Hyneton ib. 

Probably from ''■'hrna tun ; see Hindon, above. 



102 

Hippenscombe NE of Ludgershall. 

1231 HeppingcumV CI. R; 1258 Huppingescumhe C. Inq.; 
1291 Hip]^ingescumhe CI. ii; 1382 HuppT/ngescoumbe C. 
Inq.; 1371 Ippingescomhe Cal. Inq.; 1411 Huppingeombe 
R. Pat. 

Originally "^^ Hipping es cumh, IIip)ping being the patronymic 
of Heppo i^'Heppal), recorded in DB [Ellis, Intr. I, p. 433], 
which Forssner, p. 147, takes to be a Continental-Germanic 
name. The t'-vowel in the 1231 form may be due to the 
influence of the independent j)- ^- The u in the first 
syllable of some forms stand for v/. 

Hodson SSE of Swindon. 

1222 Hodestoii Phillipps' ped. fin.; 1312 Hodeston Cal. inq. 
da.; 1314 Hodeston Pat. E; 1482 Hoddesdon Cal. Inq.; 
1495 Hodeston C. Inq. 

Originally '^Hodes (Hodanl) tun. For '''Hdd{a) see under 
Heddington. The loss of t is due to weakened stress; cf. 
Rabson, below, Benson, Chilson, Oxfs. [see Alexander, pp. 
51, 75], Winson, Glos. [see Baddele}^, p. 165]. 

Holt N of Trowbridge. 

1252 Holt Ch. R; 1316 de Holte FA. 
OE holt = 'wood*, 'copse'. 

Homington SW of Salisbury. 

956 ■\hu7nming tun CS no. 962 [prob. identical]; 1086 Hu- 
mitone DB ; 1130 Humintona H. Pipe R; 1167 Huminton 
Pipe R; c. 1194 Himintoii, Hum Iton Macr ay ; i 199 Hiimiton 
Feet of fines; 1206 de Huminton R. L. Pat.; 1284 Homijnton 
Pat. R; c. 1290 de Hometonc T. Eccl.; Edw. I in Humeton 
Rot. H; 1316 Homynton FA. 

Originally '■Huminga tun, the patronymic being formed 
from '-Huma, no doubt a pet-formation of the OE [). ns 
(^')Humbcald or Himbeorht (< Hun- by assimilation of n to 



103 

b; for this element see Miiller, p. 114). The occurrence 
of -?'- for -ing- is discussed by Zachrisson, Stud, i mod. 
sprakvet. Y, p. 11. 

Hook [hnk] NNE of Wootton Bassett. 

1310 Ic Hoke Cat. A. D.; 1327 Le Houk C. Inq. 
From OE hoc, denoting Vomer', 'nook' ^ 

Horningsham SW of Warminster. 
1086 Horningesham, Horningham DB; 1150 — 60, 1224: Hor- 
ningesham Osmund; 1237 Hornigesham CI. R; 1316 Hor- 
ningesham FA. 

Originally '•■Hormnges ham [or possibly ]iam(m)], Horning 
being a patronymic of the p. n. Horn. 

Horton NE of Devizes. 

1203 Horton Cal. Kot. Ch.; 1220 de Hortone Macray [prob. 
identical]; 1428 Horton FA. 

This name probably represents an OE Vior{u)-tun; OE 
'^horn, gen. horives, = 'dirt', 'mud' (not recorded in the nom. 
as an independent word). (For the vowel in the composi- 
tion-joint see Bergsten, p. 33 f.) The village has a low 
situation on one of the head-waters of the East Avon. Cf. 
Horton [Kirkhy], Kent, which occurs as ^Horatun (for -^Horu- 
tun) in CS no. 538. 

Huish or Hewish [huij, juif] SW of Marlborough. 

1086 Itvis DB; Hen. Ill Iwys Cinq.; IMd Hytvyssh Clli; 
1428 Hmcyssh FA; 1494 Hivijs Cat. A. D. 

OE hnvisc, for which see Harden Huish. For the un- 
stability of initial // see under Avon. 



^ There is certainly no topographical evidence at the present 
day to support this meaning, but as the southern border of the 
ancient Braden forest extended to this region, it may have 
given rise to the name because of its shape at this point. 



104 

Hullavington [locally called 'Hnllington] SW of Mal- 
mesbury. 

1086 Hunlavintone DB; 1170? Huntlavinton Osmund; 1194 
Rimdlcmint Rot. Cur.; 1202 Rundlavington Phillipps' ped. 
fin.; c. 1290 Hundlavinton T. EccL; early 14tli cent. Unde- 
lavinton TN; 1328 Hunlcwintona Ch. E; 1330—35 Hulla- 
vington Br. Mus.; 1428 Hundlavyugton FA; Queen Elizabeth 
HuUavington, alias Hidlouton Cat. A. D. 

Originally ''•'Hunlafinga tun, Hunlaf being a common OE 
]). n. In ME, assimilation of n and I has taken place. For 
the inorganic d (t) between n and I cf. Horn § 185. Hullo- 
iifon (Cat. A. D.) seems to be a corrupt rendering of the 
contracted form. 

Hurdcott W of Wilton. 

1086 Hardicote DB [prob. identical]; 1175 de Herdicote Pipe II. 
[or possibly = Hurdcott NE of Salisbury]; 1269 Hurdecote 
C. Inq.; 1283 Herdecote Ch. 11; 1288 Hurdccotte C. Inq.; 
1315 Herdecote Ch. E; 1316 de Herdcote FA; 1402, 1428 
in Hurdecote FA. 

Either from '■■■heord-cof{e) or from '^heorda cot(e); OE lieord 
= 'flock', heorde (a variant of liierdeY = 'herdsman\ For ME 
it as a representative of OE eo see under Bemerton. The 
n in the mod. form, on the other hand, is, no doubt, of 
another kind, being due to the levelling of ur and cr in 
pronunciation. The rr-voAvel in the DB form must be an 
error, occasioned b}^ the fact that a and c before r oft(m 
occurred ])romiscuously in DB, viz. when representing OE 
ea (< a before r + cons, by breaking). 

Hurdcott NE of Salisbury. 

1086 in Herdicote DB; 1324 Hurdecote Pat. R. 
See preceding name. 



^ heorde (for hierdc) may naturally be duo to the inflnence 
of heord; but see also Hiilbring § 186 Anm. 



105 

Hyde X of Swindon. 

1495 Hyde C. Inq. 

OE Jiid, for which see Fifield. 

Id mist on SE of Amesbury. 
947 -^at Idemesto7ie CS no. 829; 970 ■^Idemeston{e) ib. no. 
1259 [both probably identical]; c. 1280 Ydemiston Osmund; 
c. 1290 Idcmeston T. EccL; 1316 de Idemistone FA; 1330 
Idemeston Ch. R; 1428 Id{e)meston FA. 

Originally ^Idhelmes tun. A p. n. '•'Idhelin is certainly 
not on record, but, judging from the present pi. n., its 
existence seems indisputable. Another OE p. n. with Id- 
as the first member was "^IdJiild (fem.) occurring in the local 
idhildc stem CS no. 1114. There also existed a male hypo- 
coristic Ida. Contrary to what was apparently the case in 
OE, the element Id- {It-) is very common in OGerman 
p. ns, where it had a great capacit}^ for composition (see 
Forstemann, Pers.). For its etymology see Forssner, p. 161. 
In the pi. n. under notice, the loss of I must have taken 
place at the same time as the syncope of the preceding e\ 
(the occurrence of this e in the ME spellings does not imply 
its occurrence in the local pronunciation). 

Imber on Salisburv Plain. 
1086 Imemerie DB; 1146 Immemera Macray; 1164 Irmnema 
PipeH; c. 1200 Ymmer, Himmemere Osmund: 1238 Ymmere 
Macray; c. 1290 Imere T. EccL; 1316 Immere FA; 1324 
Ynmer ib.; 1330 Immere C. Inq.; 1428 I{n)mere FA. 

Originally '-^'Imman m^re [OE metre, ^emcere = boundary, 
landmark]. The first element contains the male OE p. n. 
Imma, for which see Forssner, p. 69. For the insertion of b 
see Horn § 158. The termination in the DB form must 
be an error due to the influence of the common -herie. 



106 

Ingelburne [ipgolhorn] adjoining Mnlmesbury. 

[late 7tli cent.] '\Ingelhourne{-castel) Enlogium; 956 •\Inge1- 
bourne {aqua), (Yngleburne) CS no. 921; [n. d.] {ad aguam 
de) IngeUhourne Reg. Malm. 

This name denoted originally the more northerly of the 
two head-waters of the Lower Avon, which rises near Tet- 
bury [see Akerman's map in Archa^ol. XXXVII]. The first 
element is difficult to identify. If it was a p. n., this 
was probably the native OE Ingdd, for which see Miiller, 
pp. 100, 126. The Continental Ingel- (see Forssner, p. 70 f.) 
can, on the other hand, not possibly come into considera- 
tion here because of the early date at which the name 
occurs. The original form may consequent!}^ have been 
*In^eldes hurn{a) [hurjie]. In its position between I and h, 
the old 2:en. .v was not likelv to be retained verv lone:. 
Of. Inglesham, beloAV. 

Inglesham [iyjgdls{h)dni\ N of High worth. 

1177 Ynglesluim Pipe E; 1202 Inglesham II. L.Pat.; 1225 
Englesharn Pat. R; 1240 Inglesham, Inglisham Macray; 1262, 
1273, 1282 Inglesham C. Inq.; c. 1290 Ingelshm, T. Eccl.; 
1428 Inglesham FA; 1542 Englesham Cat. A. D. 

From ''^'In^eldes (or possibly ''■'Ingelan) ham, ''■'Ingela being 
a hypocoristic form of some p. n. beginning with Ingcl- 
(see Forssner, p. 70 f.). For In^eld see preceding name. 

Ivychurch SE of Salisburj^ 

1109 — 20 Monasterlum Hederosum Osmund; 1155 — 60 de 
Monasterio Oderoso [mistake for Edcroso] ib.; 1214 Monasterii 
Hedcrosi (gen.) Macray; 1242 Ivi church, Ivechhch Pat. R: 
1246 Ivychurch Ch. R; 1249 Ivychurch C. Inq.; 1492 Ive 
Church, Ivy-church ib. 
The meaning is obvious. 

Keevil E of Trowbridoe. 
1086 Chivele DI>; 1205 Kivelia Rot. Ch.; c. 1210 de Chivele 
Macray; 1217 dr Kivele Pat. R; 1239 Kyvel e gh CIH; 1272 



107 

Cufiy C. Inq.; 1275 Cyvel Pat. E; 1283 of Kivele, Kyveleygh 
C. Inq.; 1316 de Kyvde FA; 1318 of Keyvck Pat. R; 1326 
Cuvele C. Inq.; 1337 Kyvcleije Phillipps' fines; 1^2 Keivele 
Cal. Inq.; 1402 dc Kywele FA; 1556 Kevill Br, Mus. 

This name can hardly be Germanic. The terminations 
-legh, -J eye, -ly in some of the ME forms are certainly only 
orthographic, for there seem to be no cases of OE -leah 
(-lea^e) in pi. ns having been weakened simply to / in the 
mod. form. 

Kellaways NE of Chippenham. 

1226 Cailleivay Phillipps' ped. fin.: (n. d.) de Kayleweye 
E-eg. Malm. 

This is certainly a Celtic name; see Ca/l{a)way, Calloway, 
Bardslev. 

Kennett, East and West on the r. Kennet. W of Mail- 
borouiih. 

939 on cy}teta}(, {juxta Bipani) Khiete CS no. 734; 944 on 
Cynetan ib. no. 802; 956 on Cynetan ib. no. 942; 972 
Cynetan ib. no. 1285; 984 Cynete, on Cynetan CD no. 1282; 
[1006] cet Cynetan AS Chr. [E], cet Cynestan [D]; 1050 Cynete, 
on Cynetan CD no. 792; 1086 {in) Chenete (three times) DB; 
1214 in Kenet Uot. Ch.; c. 1290 de Kenete T. Eccl. ; 1300 
EsJcenet CI. E; Edw. Ill Ktjnete, de Estkenete NI; 1380 
Eshenet Cal. Inq.; 1428 in Est Kenete FA. 

All the forms previous to Domesday refer to the Eiver 
Kennet (the forms from CS nos. 802, 942, CD nos. 792, 
1282, and that of the AS Chr. having reference to the 
Berks, part of the river). Kennet{t) is a pre-Germanic 
name, certainly identical ^\\i\\ ^Cnnetio (Cunetione)^ mentioned 
in Antoninus' Itinerarj', which place has been located in 
the vicinity of Marlborough. Kinthury, Berks., takes its 
name from the same river. Note also Kennet, Cambs., and 
Kentford, Suffolk, for which see Skeat, Pi. Ns of Cambs., 



108 

p. 71, and PI. Ns of Suffolk, p. 38. Kennet occurs also in 
Scotch pi. ns. 

Kingston Deverill NE of Mere. 

1086 Devrel DB^; 1-205 in King es clever ell E. L. CI. ; 1240 
Wrelquinsten Ch. E (corrupt); c. 1290 de Kyngestone T. EccL: 
1318 Kyngeston Deverel C. Inq.; 1-128 Kyngeston FA. 

Kingston answers to OE '^'eyningo^ fun. For Deverill see 
Brixton I). 

Kington Langley N of Chippenham. 

1086 Lcmghelei DB [prob. identical]. 

Originally ''Uef pmii (pcere) langan lea^c. The distinctive 
name refers to the adjoining Kington St. Michael. 

Kington St. Michael NNW of Chippenham. 

1174—91 Chinctuna Br. Mus.; 1242 Kington Ch. li; 1280 
Kyngton, Kingtone ib. ; c. 1290 Kington Michis T. EccL : 
Edw. I hi Kynton Micliis Plac. Warr. ; 1320 Muuchene- 
Icyngton CI. B; 1428 Kyngton (Michaelis) FA. 

The complete absence of au}^ trace of a gen. -s in the 
present name indicates an original '"■'rync-tun, rather than 
'■■cyninges twn ; OE cyne (= royal) being an element only used 
in compounds. Cf. Kingston, West, beloAv. Munchene- in 
the CI. E-. form (< OE myneeenii = 'a nun') refers to an ancient 
Benedictine nunnery Jiere (see Heath, }). 172). Cf. Mo7ih n- 
(leverel (= Monl^ton Deverill) Monhen Farlegh (== Monkton 
Farleigh), below, and also Minchcn lane, M. meadow etc., 
(juoted in NED (under 'minchen'). 

'^St. Michael' refers to the church. 

Note. Birch's identification of yKingtone CS no. 704 vvitli 
tliis place seems to be a mere conjecture, for nothing indicates 
even that it was situated in Wilts. 



^ See the foot-note uiulei- Brixton D. 



109 

Kington, West NW of Corsliam. 

1086 Chintone DB [or possibly = Kington St. Michael]; 1175 
(■hingfona Macraj: 1233 m WestUngfoii \l. fin. exc.; 1235 
1240 Wcsflhifon Ch. R.; 12Wj West Kyngton G.Ivlo^.: Edw. I 
de Wrs{t)]:'niio}f Plac. Warr. ; c. 1290 WestUnton T. EccL; 
1316 Wed Kyn{g)ton FA; Vill Westhynton Vsit.'R; 1322 
Wesihynl-foti C. Inq.: 1324 Kynton FA: 1468 Westhynington 
Cal. Inq. 

In all probability from '^'cyne-tun: see Kington St. Michael. 

Knighton near Broad Chalk. 

1200 Knichteton Phillipps' ped. fin.; 13tli cent. Kiiyghttefon 
Cat. A. D.; 1314 Knyghteton C. Inq.; 1418 Knyghtcston Cat. 
A. D. ; 1428 Knyghteton FA. 

This name corresponds to an OE '■'cneohta [cni{e)/ita] tun. 

Knook [nnlA near Hevtesbiirv. 

1086 Cunuche (twice) DB; 1226 Cmich Osmund; 1249 
Knucli Br. Mus. ; Hen. Ill Kniik C. Inq.; 1314 CnouJc ib.; 
1316 Knoid- FA; 1327 Knoulce C. Inq.; 1402 KnotvJce Cal. 
Inq.; 1428 in KnoJce FA. 

This name is of Celtic origin; see Conock. The leng-thened 
vowel is certainly due to the analogy of JiooJc, nooJc. 

Knoyle, East or Bishop's Knoyle SW of Hindon. 
„ West oi- Little Knoyle W of Hindon. 

948, 956 Cnugel CS nos. 870, 956 [possibly identical]; 984 
cnugel CD no. 641 (prob. ident.); 1086 Chenvel (twice) DB 
(corrupt); 1227 StepelhioeV CLE [= Knoyle, East]: 1284 
Knoel Ch. E,; c. 1290 Cnoel Magna [= K., East], Cnoel 
hodierne [= K., West] T. Eccl. ; 1299 CnoiveU Cal. Inq.; 1316 
Knowell FA; 1331 Knouicell Magna Pat. E; 1402 Cnoel 
Episcopi ib. ; 1428 Knoyel, Cnoel Magna, Knoel Parva, Cnoel 
Hodiern {Hodyerne) ib.; 1458 Knoijll Episcopi Cal. Inq.; 1491 
Est Knoell C. Inq.; 1493 in Weste Knoyle ib. 



110 

This is undoubtedly a pre-Euglish name, and therefore 
its explanation must be left to Celtic scholars. One may 
mention, however, that the g in (hmgd (CS and CD), if 
the identification is correct, must have represented a 
palatal fricative [Cnugel consequently stands ''^Cnui(^)d]: 
cf. the Celtic p. n. Boia (Boiga), which also occurs as Boga 
(see Forssner, p. 51). The form Kno7vell must be merely 
orthographic, probably due to the fact that the scribe was 
unfamiliar with the non-Germanic combination oi (og). 
Association with the subst. tvell may perhaps also have 
aided in causing the spelling in question. 

For the distinctive names see Jones, p. 205. 

Lackham S of Chippenham. 

1086 Lacliam DB; 1252 Lacham Br. Mus. ; Edw. I Lackam 
ib.; loOO Lahliam Ch. E; 1430 Lackham Br. Mus. 

Originally Hac{u)-hdm'^\ OE lacu f.= 'small stream", here 
referring to the little affluent of the Lower Avon at this 
place. As a dialectal w^ord lake is still used in the sense 
of 'brook', 'stream' in several of the southern counties. 

Lacock or Laycock [both pronounced leikok] S of Chip- 
penham. 

845 (■\)Lacok CS no. 470; 1086 Lacock, Lacoc DB; 1166 
Lachocha (latinized) Pipe E,; 1167 Ljachoca ib.; c. 1210 
Lacoq Br. Mus.; 1230 Lacok Osmund; 1239 iacoc Macray; 
c. 1250? Lackoc ib.; 1260 Lacock Ch. E; 1316 de La- 
cocke FA. 

This name is obviously quite the same as Laycock, Yorks., 
whicli, according to Goodall, consists of OE lacu + the diminu- 
tive suffix oc (uc) [consequently OE Hacoc], and there seems 
indeed to be no objection to this statement. Cf. hillock, 
whicli is a quite analogous formation. The present village 
is situated on a little tributary of the Lower Avon near 
the point where it joins this river-. 

For ay in the modern form cf. Braydon, above. 

^ For the vowel in the composition-joint see Bergsten, p. 34. 



Ill 

Lake SW of Amesbuiy. 

1324 LaU Pat. E. 

This name refers to the East Avon, on the upper portion 
of which the place is situated. 

Landford ESE of Down ton. 

1086 Langeford DB 74 b, ib. 72 a?; Hen. Ill Laneford Rot. 
H; .c. 1290 Laneford, Langeford T. EccL; 1316 Laneford 
FA; 1327 Laneford Phillipps' fines; 1428 Laneford FA. 

Originally ^'se langa ford. On account of the AN ren- 
dering of ng by n, the sense of the first element must 
have been forgotten, and it was later confused wuth land, 
which has persisted in the mod. name. It is interesting 
to notice Langford^ Notts., which has developed in quite 
the opposite way (from land- > lang-)\ see Mutschmann, 
p. 80. 

Note. Stevenson's suggestion, p. 319 f., that Leonaford men- 
tioned in Asser's Life of King Alfred, may be identical with 
Landford, Wilts, is obviously quite impossible for philological 
reasons. 

Langford, Little NW of Wilton. 

c. 1290 Langeforde pva T. EccL; 1428 Parva Langeford FA. 
See Steeple Langford. The OE forms quoted under that 
name refer also to Langford, Little (as well as to Hanging 
Langford). One of the Langefords in T>^ probably also 
refers to this place, according to Jones the one mentioned 
on fol. 68 a. 

Langley Burrell Within in the mun. bor. of Chippenham. 
„ „ Without adjoining the above. 

940 -^ad Langelegli , '\de Langeleythe (corrupt) OS no. 751 
[possibly identical]; 1086 Langefel DB [prob. identical]; 
c. 1290 de Longaleye T. EccL [or possibly ident. with 
Kington Langley]; 1258 Langele C. Inq. ; 1316 Langele FA; 
1333 Langle Burel Phillipps' fines ; 1428 Langeley, Langle FA. 



112 

Originally '''(et fjr?m {pr^re) langmi lea^e. The termination 
in the DB form represents the OE synonymous feld (for 
the loss of d see Stolze § 37 ; cf. Winkfield, below). 

For the family name ^Burreir (Borel) see Hildebrand, 
p. 331, and Bardsley. According to Jones, p. 221, the 
*Burrells' held the manor from the time of Domesday till 
the earlv 14th cent. 

Latton NNW of Cricklade. 

1086 Latone DB; 1241 in Lcdtoh Ix. fin. exc. ; Edw. I in 
Lacton (three times) Plac. Warr. ; c. 1290 de Latfonc T. 
Eccl.; 1316, 1428 Lattoyi FA. 

Probably from OE '■Hac(u)-tun , lacti referring to '^the 
Churn\ one of the head-waters of the Thames, which flows 
here bv the side of the Thames and Severn Canal. Assira- 
ilation of A: to ^ has consequently taken place. 

Laverstock [I(EVd{r)stolc] near Salisbury. 

L086 LavcrtestocJie, Lavvrecestohes [corrupt] DB; 1221 La- 
verTcestoh Pat. B.; 1227 de LaverstoJce Macray; 1249 Laver{e)- 
hestolc C. Inq. ; 1303 LarJcestolc Cal. Inq. ; 1311 in Lmverke- 
stoJce E/Ot. Orig. ; 1316 de LaverstoJce FA; 1320 LavirJcestoJc 
Eot. Orig.; 1349 Laverestoke ; 1402 m LarhestoJce F A : 1428 
in Laverkestohe ib. ; 1492 LaverstoJc, at LaverstoMe C. Inq. 
Originally Haferc{e)-stoc \lawerc{e)-stoc\. The first element, 
which also occurs in a few other names [e. g. Km) lauerJce- 
boerge OS no. 125, '\(on) laweorc dune ib. no. 870, "fito) lauro- 
can beorge ib. 1005, lauerean heorh ib. no. 1238, {uppan) 
'\lauerces byrig CD 1129] most probably represents the bird 
(*^the lark') ^ The first of the DB forms is another example 
of orthographic confusion between c and t. For the ter- 
mination see Baverstock. 



' The possibility that it was a p. n. is very slight; in that 
case it would probably have been of Scand. provenience (like 
Raf{e)n, Sualeua)^ but ONorse Ifevirki is not recorded as a 
p. n. 



113 

Note. Lcefer CS no. 879 is stated by Birch to be the name 
of the river on which Laverstock is situated. This localization 
seems, however, to be erroneous. The stream that flows past 
Laverstock is "^the Boule\ in OE times called Winter-burn{a)\ see 
Winterbourne (Dauntsey), below. 

Lavington, Market or East L. S of Devizes. 

1086 Laventone DB; 1254 Stejpellavinton, Pat. E.; 1257 Ste- 
pellauintJion G. Inq. ; 1271 Stiipellaunton ib. ; 1276 Stupelavin- 
toti ib.; c. 1290 de Stiipellavyngtone T. 'Keel.; ISOl Lauentov 
Br. Mus. ; 1316 Stapid Lavynton FA ; 1318 Stepel Lavynton 
Cli. R; 1324: StupellavyntonFA; 1402 Lavyngton^ Stepillav{m- 
ton) ib. ; 1428 Stupel Lavyngton ib. ; 1496 Est Lavyngton C. Inq. 
From '-'Lafinga (or '^ La fan) tmi, Lafa being a p. n. recorded 
in LYD [see Mtiller, p. 57]. Of the distinctive Stepel 
{Stupel) and Stapid, the former is probably the correct form 
(referring to the church steeple). A confusion of this kind 
may have easily taken place, particularly as both elements 
are frequent in pi. ns. Cf. Stapleford, Steeple Ashton, S. 
Langford, below, and Steeple Aston, Oxfs. [see Alexander, 
PI. Ns of Oxfs.]. In the present case, the substitution of 
stapid for step^el may of course be due to the fact that the 
place was formerly a market town; [see Camden, p. 108]. 

Note. Alexander's explanation of stepel^ steeple (in connection 
with his discussion of Steeple Aston, PI. Ns of Oxfs., p. 195) 
from the Mercian steapul [with w-umlaut] is a strange mistake. 

Lavington, West or Bishop's L. SW of Lav. E. 

1086 Laventone DB; 1091 Lavinton Osmund; c. 1136 La- 
vintona Macray; 1140 — 42 Lavinton Osmund; 1195 in Lauin- 
ton Feet of fines; 1232 in Lavinton' Episcopi 01. E; 1238 
de Lavinctune Macray; 1294 Lavynton Ch. R; 1316 Lavyn- 
ton FA. 

See preceding name, c for g in Lavinctune is a AN 
spelling [see Hildebrand, p. 360, § 18]. The distinctive 
name refers to its former tenant, the Bishop of Sarum. 

S E. Ekhlom 






114 

Lea SE of Malmesburv. 

c. 1290 Legh T. Eccl. [or = Leigh Delamere]; 1346 la Lee 
Rot. Orig. 

OE leaQi) (= 'meadow'). 

Leigh near Westbury. 

1316 de Lye FA; 1318 m Leye Ch. E; 1330 Lye C. Inq. ; 
1340 La Lee Ch. R. 

The modern form is developed from the OE nom. leah, 
Lnje^ Leye from the dat. lea^e. 

Leigh Delamere NW of Chippenham. 

1428 LygK Legh FA; 1488 LJgh C. Inq. 

See above. ""Delamere' is an AN family name; cf. 
Fisherton Delamere. 

Liddington SE of Swindon. 

1086 Ledentone DB; 1204 de Lidintoh R. Oblat. ; c. 1290 
Ludinton T. Eccl.: 1316 Ludynton FA; 1428 Ludijngton'FA.. 
Probably from "^Lydinga tun, the first element being a 
patronymic of the OE p. n. Lud{d)a; cf. Luddington, AVarws. 
[see Duignan, PI. Ns of Warws.], Luddenden, Yorks. [see 
Good all], and Ludwell, below. For e as a representative of 
OE y in DB see Stolze § 15. 

Littlecott NE of Hilmarton. 

1086 Litleeote DB; 1232 Littlecot Ch. R; 1316 de Liflecofe 
FA; Edw. Ill de Littellecote NI. 
*.S60 lytic cote or ''^pcet lytle cot. 

Littlecott near Enford. 

1300 Littelecotc Cal. Inq.; [n. d.] de Ltjttlekote Cat. A. D. 
See above. 

Littlecott NW of Hungerford (Berks.). 
1428 in LyteJcote FA. See above. 






115 

Littleton Drew or St. Andrew Littleton W of Grittleton. 

1065 Litletun CD no. 817 [possibly identical]; 1086 Litel- 
tone DB 66 b; c. 1290 Litleton T. Eccl.; early 14th cent. 
Littelton TJST; 1316 Litleton Drew e^K\ Vd>2^ Littelton Dreiu 
ib.; 1351 Liitlyngton Dru Phillipps' fines; 1428 Lyttelton 
Brew FA. 

*se lytla tun. The m^-suffix in one of the ME forms is 
due to analogy with pi. ns containing a patronymic as the 
first element; cf. Sherrington, below. For the AN 'Drew' 
(possibly referring to Walterus Drew, TN 142, 158) see 
Forssner, p. 60 f. ''St. Andrew' refers to the church. 

Note. There seems no reason to locate Lytletun CD no. 654 
in Wilts., as is stated in Kemble's index. 

Littleton Pannell S of Potterne. 

1086 Liteltone DB 71 d [prob. identical]; 1239 de Litlin- 
tone Macray; 1316 Lutleton Paynel C. Inq.; 1318 Lytleton 
ib.; 1324 Lyttleton Paynel ib. 

See preceding name. 'PayneF (Pannell) is an AN family 
name; see Bardsley. 

Littleton NE of Trowbridge. 
1470 Litilton Br. Mus.; see above. 

Lockeridge WSW of Marlborough. 

1086 Locherige DB; Edw. I LoJcerrigge Rot. H; 1316 de 
LoTcerugge FA. 

The termination is obviously OE hryc^ ■-= 'ridge (of a 
down)'. The first element may have contained a (hypoco- 
ristic?) p. n. '^Luca, found in the local Incan heorJi CS no. 
1066, probably also identical with the first member of 
Luceman (on a coin of the time of ^thelbeorht), Lucumon 
(AS Chr.). A Continental Liica is also quoted in Searle; 
cf. Luckington, below. 



116 

Longbridge Deverill S of Warminster. 

1086 Devrel DB i; 1253 in Longo Ponte Beverell Pat. R; 
Hen. HI Deverel Lungpunt Rot. H; 1267 Deverel Lungepunt 
Pat. R; 1316 Dever(iU) Langebrigge FA; 1330 Deverellange- 
brigge Ch. R; c. 1333 Deuerel Lajigebrigg Br. Mus.; 1428 
Deverell Longepond FA. 

For Deverill see Brixton D. Whether 'Longbridge' goes 
as far back as the OE period, it is impossible to sa3^ 

Longford SE of Salisbury. 

956 cet Langanforda CS no. 934 [possibly identical]; 1086 
Langcford DB 74 b; 1290 Langeford Ch. R; Edw. I Lange- 
ford Br. Mus.; 1316 Langeford FA; 1485 Lang ford (Cer- 
vyngton) C. Inq. 

For the distinctive 'Cervyngton' see Heath, p. 188. 

Longleat WSW of Warminster. 

1235 la Langelete Macray; 1240 — 50 Longalete ib.; 1265—70 
Longaleta ib. ; late 13th cent. La Langhelete Br. Mus.; 1315 
Langelete C. Inq.; 1333 Longleat ib. 

This name refers to the long sub-affluent of the r. Frome 
which flows down here from the neighbourhood of Hor- 
ningsham. leat corresponds to OE ^elM{e) n., which, besides 
the present meaning, has also the sense of 'junction^ (e. g. 
we^a ^elMe). Whether *^Longleat' originated as far back as 
OE times, it is of course impossible to say. 

Luckington NW of Grittleton. 

1086 Lochintone (twice) DB; 1194 Luchinton Rot. Cur.; 
1199 de Lokintoh ib.; 1217 LoUntun Pat. R; c. 1290 Lo- 
Jcinton T. Eccl.; Edw. I in LoTcinton Plac. Warr. ; 1316 de 
Lokyntone FA; 1382 LucJcington Br. Mus. ; 1458 Lokyngton ib. 
Probably from '^Lucinga tun, the first element being a 
patronymic of *Luca, for which see under Lockeridge. 



^ See the foot-note under Brixton D. 



117 

Lud^ershall [Icigsfil] NE of Amesbury. 

1086 Litlegarsele DB [obviously corrupt]; 1203 de Lote- 
gareshal R. L.Pat. ; 1215 Lutegareshal ib ; 1227, 1238 Lute- 
gareshal Ch. B,; 1233 de Luttegarishar CLE,; 1251 Liidgers- 
hall Ch. R; 1261 of Lutteger shale Pat. R; 1264 o/" Lote- 
gereshale ib.; 1268 Lotegarsal, apud Lutegereshalam Ch. P; 
1271 Lotegareshal ib.; 1292 Ludgershall ib.; 1316 cZe iw^e- 
garshale FA; 1334 ^e Luggershale Pot. Orig.; 1336 i/it^ 
gareshall P. Pat.; 1428 (^e) Ludegarscde FA; 1528 o/* 
Liirgarsale Cat. A. D.; 1572 Lurgassill Br. Mus. 

It is obvious that the first element is made up of a p. n., 
which is the same one as occurs in the local "fludegarstone 
CD no. 654, {^)Liiteg are shale ib. no. 722 {Lutegaresheale, 
Thorpe) ^, and also in Ludgershall ^ Backs, and Glos., and 
Lurgershall, Sussex (the ME forms of the last three pi. ns 
being exactly analogous to those of the Wilts, name). It 
is, however, quite impossible for me to identify this 
p. n. in any Avay, for no similar compound is on record 
either in England or on the Continent. All that seems 
clear is that its second member is the common (OE) p. n. 
element gar. The explanation of this name must therefore 
be left to some authority on p. ns. 

hall in pi. ns may go back either to OE heall (hall) = 
'palace', 'residence', or to healh (halh), dat. heale, which has 
been thought to denote 'nook', 'corner', 'secret place'; see 
'hale' NED, and Wyld, p. 340 f. 

The r in the first syllable of the Cat. A. D. and Br. Mus. 
forms is certainly not a spelling mistake, for we may note 
the same change in the mod. Lurgershall (Lurgashall), 
Sussex [see Poberts, p. 105]. This substitution is, no doubt, 
due to sound-physiological causes (on account of the diffi- 
culty of pronouncing two explosives in succession). 



^ There seems, however, no reason to identify this place with 
Ludgershall, Wilts., as is suggested in the indexes of CD and 
Thorpe. 



118 

Ludwell E of Shaftesbury (Dors.). 

1195 in Ludeivell Feet of fines; 1216 Liidewell Rot. Ch. ; 
1252 Liidetvell Ch. R. 

Originally '^'Ludan wieU(e) [ivyU(e)], For the p. n. Luda 
see Liddington, above. Cf. Ludwell, Oxfs. (Alexander, 
PI. Ns of Oxfs.). 

Lushill NW of Highworth. 

1268 LustreshuU Pat. R; 1276 LiistesJmll Ch. R; 1324 
Lusteshull Pat. R; 1329 LusteshulJe C. Inq. ; 1428 Lusteshull 
FA; [n. d.] de Lustreshulle, de LustrushuUe Cat. A. D. 

Probably from ^'Lustan hyll (Avith a later insertion of 
the strong gen. ending), *Lusta being a pet-form of some 
name beginning with Lust-, of which Lustivine is on record. 
The forms with r inserted are certainly errors, due to the 
influence of OFrench words in lustr- (e. g. lustreux). 

Lydiard Millicent I „„ „ ^„ 

... ^ ^ NE of AA ootton Bassett. 

Lydiard Tregoze ) 

900 -\Lidgeard, '\Lidegceard, "fLidgerd CS no. 590 [possibly 
identical]; 901 — 24 '\Lidgeard ib. no. 591 [poss. ident.]; 
1086 Lidiarde (= L. M.), Lediar (=L. T.)DB; 1228 Lydierd 
Ch. R; 1283 Northiideyerd (= L. M.) Pat. R; 1285 Lidiard, 
Lydeyerd Ch. R; Edw. I in Lydeyard' Viae. Warr. ; c. 1290 
Lydyerd Milsent, L. Tregos T. Eccl.; 1307 Lydyherd C. Inq.; 
1315 Lidiard ib.; 1316 Ledyerd, Lydyerd FA; 1324 LAjdeard 
Tregos ib.; 1327 Lydeyerd Tregoz C. Inq.; 1349 Suth 
Ledyerd (= L. T.), NortJi Lidyerd Cal. Inq. ; 1428 Lydyard, 
Lydeyerd Milsent, L. Tregos FA; [n. d.] de Ledeyarde ^eg. 
Malm. 

The termination is obviously OE ^eard (= enclosed place). 
The etymology of the first element its not clear. The best 
suggestion that I can offer is that the element may have 
contained an unrecorded p. n. "^Lyda, formed from *Li/ding 
(the patronymic of Luda; see Liddington, above). Cf. 
Tud{d)a : *Tyd{d)a under Tedworth. 



119 

For the e instead of i in the first syllable of some forms 
above see under Biddestone. On the AN distinctive names 
see Jones, p. 222 f. 

Note. Searle's assumption of a p. n. *Lida, on the ground of 
the local Lidanege CS no. 1282, p. 585, is probably a mistake, as 
the first element of the name in question seems to refer to the 
River Leddon, Worcs. ; nor does his inference of a p. n. *Lidgeard 
from lidgeardes heorge CS no. 1125 seem authenticated, for Lidgeard- 
may just as well represent a pi. n. 

Lidigerd{e) CD no. 897 was obviously in Soras., prob. = Lydeard 
St. Lawrence, (not in Wilts., as is stated by Kemble). 

Lyneham [lainQiysmI SW of Wootton Bassett. 
1285 Linham Ch. H; c. 1290 Lynlim T. EccL; 1316, 1428 
Lynham FA; 1596 Lyneham Br. Mus. 

OE H~in-}idm\ OE Un (= flax) is not uncommon in pi. ns. 

Note. Lineham, Oxfs., is evidently of the same origin, but 
Alexander's suggestion that the modern diphthongized vowel of 
the first element indicates a derivation from the dat. case [conse- 
quently '""'cet Une-ham{m)e] is impossible, as the preposition could 
only have affected the second element. The retention of the 
long vowel is simply due to the influence of the independent 
subst. line (now chiefly a dialectal word). 

Maddington AVNW of Amesbury. 
1277 Madinton C. Inq.; c. 1290 cle Madyngtone T. EccL; 
1294 Wynterburn Maidijnton (corrupt) Cal. Inq.; 1316 
Madijnton FA; 1428 Madijngton FA; 1485, 1493 Wynter- 
home Madyyigton C. Inq. 

Probably from '-'Madrnga tun, the first element being a 
patronymic of a (hypocoristic?) p. n. *Mada, recorded in 
the local •\Madanlieg (CS no. 1312, which is identified by 
Birch with Madeley, Staffs.). The name evidently occurs also 
in Madingley, Cambs. [see Skeat, PI. Ns of Cambs. j3. 67]. 

The distinctive name refers to the stream on which the 
place is situated; see Winterbourne Stoke, below. 

Maiden Bradley N of Mere. 
1086 Bradelie DB; 1178? Deuerell Puellarum Br. Mus.; 
c. 1210 BradeJe Macray; 1228 Bradeleg Ch. E; Bradleigh 



120 

Leprosi Cal. Rot. Ch.; 1267 Meydenebradele Ch. E; 1270 
Braddeleg Ch. R; 1271 Maiden Bradley E. Pat.; 1280 
Maydenehradclegh C. Inq. ; 1281 Deverill Br. Mus.; c. 1290 
Bradele Abhis T. EccL; 1328 Maydenhradlegh Ch. E; 1428 
Bradeley (Ahhatis) FA; 1492 Mayden Bradlegh C. Inq. 

Originally *cp^ ^<^m {p^re) hradan lea^e. For the distinc- 
tive names see Camden, p. 110, and Jones, p. 199. The 
place is situated at the source of the Deverill-stream, which 
accounts for the Br. Mus. forms above. 

Note, to hradan leage CD no. 133 and yBradelege ib. no. 460 
are erroneously stated by Kemble to be identical with Maiden 
Bradley. The former of these places was obviously situated in 
east Wilts, near Bedwyn, and the latter in the north-west, near 
Brokenborough. There seems also no reason for assuming with 
Birch and Kemble that 'fBrada?il(eh CS no. 153 (CD no. 79) was 
situated here. 

Malmesbury. 

675 -fMaldumeshiwg {^ Mealdumeshurg) CS no. 37; 681 -^Mel- 
dulfeshirg (•\MeIdunesburg) ib. no. 58; 683 '\Maldumes'burg 
{■\MceIdubeshurg) ib. no. 65; 701 •\MeIdumeshurg {"fMaldtmens- 
burg, "^Mceldumesburgg) ib. no. 103; '\Meldumesburg, Meldum 
ib. no. 105; Maldumes bui'uJi, cet Mealdiimesbyrig, Meldum 
ib. no. 106; 705 -fMaldubesburg ib. no. 114; [n. d.] Mail- 
dulfi urbs Bede; 745 Maldunense monastervum CS no. 170; 
758 in Maldubiensi {Maildubiensi) monasterio ib. no. 185; 
854 ■\Malmesburg {^Meldubesburg) ib. no. 470; Alfred -^Mal- 
diiberi, '^Mceldunesbiirg, -\McBldiihiiri ib. no. 568; '\Maildu- 
beri, "^Maldumesburg, Maildubiensis [cecclesice] (gen.) ib. no. 
569; ^thelstan Meldidfuensis burgi (gen.) ib. no. 720; 937 
Meldunensi [ecclesice] (dat.) ib. no. 718; 965 — 971 to Meal- 
dcelmces byrig ib. no. 1174; 974 '\Malmesburgh ib. no. 1300; 
[1015] binnon Mealdelmes byrig AS Chr. [E], Ealdclmes byrig 
ib. [C and D]; 1086 Malmesberie, Mamcsberie DB; c. 1125 
Meldunurn (corrupt) W. Malm.; 1131 Mahnesberioe (gen.) 
Macray; 1199 Maumesbif E. Oblat.; 1200 Malmcsbir Eot. 
Ch.; 1206 Malmesbif E. L. Pat.; 1215 Maumeshif\h.\ 1220-25 



121 

de Mamesbirie Osmund; 1252 Mamnesbiri Ch. E,; 1254 
Malmyshiire Macray; 1280 Malmeshury Ch. R. 

This name has been discussed by Miller, PL Ns in the 
Engl. Bede, p. 79 f. The place is, he says, associated 
1) with Maildu{l)fj the Scotch founder of the monastery 
[see Eulogium Cap XCII], 2) with Meldiim as founder [see 
CS no. 105], 3) with Aldhelm, the well-known Malmesbury 
abbot (died in 709). As far as the first and third sugges- 
tions are concerned, there is no objection, but in the case 
of the second one, there is considerable doubt about the 
existence of anyone called Meldum^ in spite of the state- 
ment in CS no. 105: monasterium . . . quod Meldum reli- 
giosce memorice condidit, quod etiam nunc Meldumeshurg voc- 
atur . . . This name is most probably a mere construction 
from Meldumeshurg. Mcdmeshurij is consequently in all 
probability made up of two p. ns only: Maildii{I) f Siud Aid- 
helm (Ealdhelm), which have been hopelessly confused w^ith 
each other in this pi. n. The independent Meldum is, no 
doubt, a formation quite analogous to Sarum (see below), 
viz. a latinization, formed from the first syllable of the 
pi. n. by means of the Latin ending -um. For the loss of 
u (< I) in Mamesherie, Mamesbirie see Zachrisson, p. 150. 

Manningford Abbots | 

Bohun SW of Pewsey. 
„ Bruce I 

987 Maningaforda, ^Manyngforde L. de Hyda; 1086 Maneforde 
(= M. A.), Maniford (twice) [= M. Bohun and Bruce] DB; 
1142 — 80 Mangesford Br. Mus.; c. 1200 Manegesford Osmund; 
1218 Maningeford Macray; c. 1243 Manigge f ord ih.; c. 1290 
Mannmgeford Abbis T. EccL; Eiiw. I Maningford Plac. 
Warr., Maningford Parva [= M. A.] Eot. H; 1296 Manyng- 
feld Brewose Pat. E; 1311 Manyngeford {Breivose), Manyng- 
feld C. Inq.; 1316 Maningford Abbatis, M. Boun, M. Bre- 
wose FA; 1324 Manijngeford, Br ewes ib.; 1325 Manyngford 



122 

Brewes C. Inq. ; 1428 Manyngford Abbatis, Manyngford 
Sancti Petri {= M. Bruce) FA. 

The first of the forms quoted from L. de Hyda obviously 
represents the original name. Man{n)mg is a patronymic 
of the OE p. n. Man(n) or Man{n)a. Manningford Abbots 
was a former estate of the abbey of St. Peter, Win- 
chester (see DB), Avhence its distinctive name. 'Bohun^ 
(occurring as ^Bohum^ in DB, see Hildebrand, p. 345) and 
'Brewose' are AN family names. 'Bruce^ in the present 
case is only a corruption of 'Brewose'. 

Manton near Marlborough. 

1086 Mmietune DB; 1258 Manton C. Inq.; Edw. I Maniton 
Eot. H; 1428 Manton FA. 

Probably from ''Man(n)an tun] for Man(n)a see preceding 
name. 

Note. Birch's identification of Me}i{h)andun CS nos. 584, 585 
with this place is obviously quite impossible. 

Marden or Merton SE of Devizes. 

940 ^on mcerdenum CS no. 748; 963 -\merh dcene ib. no. 
1118; 1086 Meresdene DB; 1167 Mergdena Pipe E; 1170 
Mercdena ib.; 1172 Merede^ia ib.; 1185 de Meredon ib.; 
1204 in Mardeh E. Oblat.; 1205 Mereden E. L. CI.; 1233 
Meredeh E. fin. exc; 1261 Mereden Ch E; c. 1290 de Mergh- 
dene T. EccL; 1316 de Meredene FA; 1321 Merden CI. E; 
1322 Meriuheden (twice) Pat. E; Edw. Ill Merghedene NI; 
1428 Mereden, de Merghdene FA. 

From the situation of this village it is evident that the 
original termiantion was OE dene (denu) = Valley\ The first 
element obviously contained the subst. mearh (= horse). The 
old forms quoted above indicate, however, two variants of the 
original name: *mearh-dene (denu) and *meara dene (denu) 
[meara gen. plur.]. It is true that both these forms would have 
given by regular development a instead of e in the first 
syllable even in the early ME forms. The ^-spellings are, 



123 

however, easily explained as due to the influence of the many 
pi. ns containing ME Mere- (< OE mcere or mere) as the first 
element. The s of the DB form may be accounted for in two 
ways : if Meresdene represents an OE '^'mcarh-dene, the s is 
an AN rendering of the fricative x (see under Brigmerston); 
if, on the other hand, it corresponds to *meara dene, the .9 
has been inserted through analogy w^ith pi. ns, the first 
element of which has a gen. s. 

Another pi. n. containing OE mearh is {on) mearh forda 
CS no. 931. 

Note. From what has been said above it is evident that 
Plummer's suggestion that Mere tune [A], Mcere dune [E]. 
AS Chr. A. D. 871 are identical with this place must be wrong, 
as the former of these forms (belonging to the Parker ms) has 
the strongest claims to be genuine. Kemble's identification of 
'\Meard(jeno (latex) CD no. 103 with Marden, Wilts., is also an 
obvious mistake. Meardceno is on the other hand to be located 
in the vicinity of Malmesbur5^ 

Marlborough [maa{7^)Ibdrj, molbsrd]. 

1086 in Merleherge DB; 1091 Marleberg Osmund; [1110] 
(JBt Mcerle heorge AS Chr. [E]; 1147 Melleburga Cal. France; 
c. 1148 Merleberga Osmund; 1158 Merleherg ib. ; 1176? 
Melleberga Cal. France; 1226 Merleburge Cal. Rot. Ch.; 
1229, 1246 Marlborough Ch. R; 1258 Marleberg C. Inq.; 
1280 Marleborgh ib.; 1308 of Merleberge \h.\ 1320 de Marle- 
herewe CI. R; 1361 de Merleborotve Cal. Inq.; 1390 Marle- 
bergh Br. Mus.; 1428 Marleburg. 

The first element seems to be the same as in Marlesford, 
Suffolk, which Skeat (PI. Ns of Suffolk, p. 34) takes to be 
a p. n. In that case it is certainly connected with the 
obscure first member of the Scand. McErleswegen (Mcerlas- 
wegen) [see Bjorkman, Pers. I p. 93] ^ The second element 

^ As it seems quite impossible to explain ilicerZ- as a Ger- 
manic element, one mav be inclined to connect it with the 
Irish Mcsrlin (the name of the well-known mythical figure in the 
Arthurian epics). 



124 

was OE beorh, which later on has been as usual replaced 
by borough; see Brokenborongh. The pronunciation [mol- 
bdro] is due to an older form, in which r has been lost 
(see Horn § 237, note I). 

Marston SW of Potterne. 

1309 in Merstone Br. Mus.; 1331 Mersheton VhiWi^^^' fines; 
1413 Mershton Cal. Inq.; 1428 Merssheton FA. 

Original^ '^'mersc-tun (OE mersc = marsh). The situation 
is on low ground on a tributary of the Lower Avon. For 
the change of sh > s which has taken place in the majority 
of the pi. ns containing this first element, Alexander (PI. 
Ns of Oxfs.. p. 150 f.) assumes, with great probability, that 
there were two factors which co-operated to this develop- 
ment: 1) the AN spelling s(s) for sh, 2) the analogy of the 
gen. s of the first element in other pi. ns. 

The next two names, which also refer to low-lying places 
near water, have the same etymology. 

Marston Maisey (Meysey) NE of Cricklade. 

1194 de Merstoh Eot. Cur. (or = M. South); Hen. HI Merston 
C. Inq.; c. 1290 Mershtone T. Eccl. ; 1301 of Mershtone 
Meijsi Cat. A. D.; 1316 de Northe Mershton FA; 1331 
Merston Meysy Pat. R; 1332 Mershton Meijsy ib.; 1428 
Mersheton FA. 

See above. *^Maisey' (Me3^sey) is a family name, probably 
of native origin. 

Marston, South NE of Swindon. 

1262 Merston C. Inq.; 1330 Suthmershton Phillipps' fines. 
See above. 

Marten E of Burbage. 

1086 in Mertone (twice) DB; 1227 Merton, Mereton Ch. R; 
1246 de Mertone Macray; 1278 Marthon C. Inq.; 1428 
Merton FA. 



125 

Probably from an original ■'^mcere-tun ("the farm at the 
border). The termination has become -ten through weak- 
ening-. 

Medbourne SE of Swindon. 

955 fow medebourne CS no. 904 (prob. identical); 1306 Med- 
hurne Cal. Inq. ; 1392 Medebourne ib.; [n. d.] Medebunie 
Cat. A. D. 

No doubt from an original '^wt (pcere) mmd-bui'ne [cet 
{pdnn. p^re) mced-burnan\, denoting the little affluent of 
the r. Cole here. WS m^d (Angl. med) = 'meadow' (mead). 
We obviously have the same name in medeburne (Dors.?) 
CS no. 754, and in mod. Medbourne (Leics.) [occurring as 
Medhurne in DB, 1278 Medburn C. Inq., Medburn TN]. 

Melksham NE of Trowbridge. 

1086 Melehesham (twice) DB; 1194 Melcheshci, Melkesha. 
Mulchesha Eot. Cur.; 1200 MelJcesham Osmund; 1222 MelJce- 
ham R. L. CL; 1228 de Milkeshani CI. H; 1232 MelJcesham 
Ch. R; 1240 Melcsham Pat. E; 1253 Melkesham C. Inq.; 
1260 Melksham Ch. R; 1280 Mulkesham CI. R; 1316 Mel- 
kesham. FA; 1377 Melehesham E.. Pat.; 1458 Milkesham 
Br. Mus. 

Originally '■'meolc-ham. This place must consequently 
have been a sort of dairj^ farm in OE times. The -s- is' 
no doubt, a later insertion. 

Mere [mi9{r)]. 

1086 Mera, Mere DB; 1091, c. 1190 Mera Osmund; 1220 
Mere ib.; 1243 Mere Ch. R; 1316 Maijre FA; 1380 Meere 
Cal. Inq.; 1402 Mere FA. 

OE m^re (= boundary, landmark). As the town is situated 
in the SW corner of the county near the border of Soms., 
it is most probable that the name originally denoted the 



126 

border between the 'Wilssete' and the "Sumorssete^ ^ Mayre 
(FA) is to be considered as an inverted spelling (French 
ai > ME ce). 

Merton see Marden. 

Midgehall near Wootton Bassett. 

1319 of Miggehale Pat. E. 

Probably from "^Mec^an heall (or healh), Mcc^a being an 
OE p. n. (recorded among the signatories in CS no. 379), 
no doubt the same word as OE mcec^a {^'inecga) = 'man'. 
Cf. Midgehaigh, Lanes., whicli probably also contains 
the same p. n. (see the old forms quoted by Wyld). For 
healh see Ludger shall. 

Milbourne a suburb of Malmesbury. 

1315 Milburn Eot. Orig.; Mulhurn Pat. E; 1388 Mulherne. 
Originally '^''cet (f)mre) mylen-hurnc [cet {pcem, pmre) mylen- 
hurnan], denoting a tributary of the Lower Avon. 

Mildenhali (locally 'Minall') ENE of Marlborough. 

803—805 ■\MUdanhald CS no. 324; 1086 Mildenhalle DB; 
1241 in MiUehale Ch. E; 1260 Mildehal C. Inq.; 1281 
Mildehall ib.; 1316 de Mildenhale FA; 1327 Mildenhale 
C. Inq.; 1428 de Myldenhale FA. 

From ^'Mildan heall, "^'Milda probably representing some 
name beginning with Mild-, e. g. Mildred', cf. Milston, below. 
The final d in the CS form must be an error. 

Milford at Salisbury. 

1086 Meleford (twice) DB; Hen. Ill Muleford Eot. H.. C. 
Inq.; Edw. I Mideford Eot. H.; early 14th cent. Muleford TN. 

^ The question of the exact limits of the counties in OE 
times seems not to be quite settled, but their general limits 
are considered to be of great antiquity (see Pearson, p. 27). 



127 

Originall}^ ''mylen-ford. For e as a representative of OE 
y in DB see Stolze § 15. 

Milston N of Amesbury. 

1086 Mildestone (twice) DB; 1178? Mildistona Br. Mus.; 
1199 in Mildestoh Rot. Ch.; 1272 Mildeston C. Inq.; 1270 
Mildestona Ch. R; 1330 Mulleston C. Inq.; 1361 Milesto7i 
Cal. Inq.; 1428 Mildeston FA. 

Probablv from "^Mildan tun (with a later substitution of 
strong for weak gen. ending). For Milda see Mildenhall, 
above, u in Midleston stands for a secondary y. 

Milton Liibourne E of Pewsey. 

1205 in Mideltoh R. L. CI. [prob. identical]; 1281 Middelton 
Lillebon C. Inq.; c. 1290 Middelton T. EccL; 1308 to Middle- 
tone C. Inq.; 1319 Middelton Lillebon ib.; 1402 Milton ¥K\ 
1416 Milton Cal Inq.; 1428 Mijd(d)elton FA. 

Originall}^ ''^'middel-tun. 'Lillebon' looks like a French 
familv name, of which 'Liibourne' in that case must be a 
corrupt form. 

Minety NE of Malmesbury. 

844 "^Minty {Mintijg) CS no. 447; 880 •\Mmtih, •\Minti 
(Mintig) ib. no. 444; 1199 Minthy Rot. Ch.; 1232 Minthi, 
Menthi Ch. R; 1258 Mynti ib.; 1336 Minty ib.; 1428 
Mynty FA. 

The first element is OE minte (= mint) and the termin- 
ation le^ (here as always in Wilts, pi. ns denoting 'marshy 
land') 1. 

Monkton Deverill NE of Mere. 

1086 Devrel DB 66 c or 66 d; Edw. I Deverel Monketon 
Rot. H; c. 1290 Deverel Monachor' T. EccL; l?,l^ Monketon 
FA; 1336 MoncJceton Deverel Cal. Inq.; 1340 MonJcendeverel 
CI. R. 



^ It is a well-known fact that the most common species of 
this plant (Mentha arvensis) flourishes on moist ground. 



128 

'Monkton' is here probably a distinctive name, due to 
the fact that the abbot of Glastonbury was formerly tenant 
of the manor (see DB). For Monhen- (CI. R), which seems 
to be improperly added here as w^ell as in the following 
name, see Kington St. Michael, above. For Deverill^ see 
Brixton D. 

Monkton Farleigh E of Bath (Soms.). 

1001 -fat FarnUghe CD no. 706; 1086 Farlege DB 73 c; 
1194 de Farnlege, Ferleia, Ferneleia Rot. Cur.; 1227 Ferleg(h) 
Oh. E; de Farlegh' CI. R; c. 1243 Fernleya, de Fernlege^ 
Farley ge Macray; 1316 Farley Monachorum FA; 1363 
Munkesfarlegh Cal. Inq ; 1397 in Farleglie Br. Mus.; 1400 
Monken Farlegh Cat. A. D.; 1408 Monkenfarlegh Phillipps' 
fines. 

Originall}^ ''^'fearn-leah (OE fearn = fern). The distinctive 
name refers to a Cluniac priory, which w^as founded here 
in the 12th cent. (Heath, p. 233). For MonJce?i- see Kington 
St. Michael and preceding name. 

Moredon [mD(r)d'n] NNW of Swindon. 

1086 Mordone DB; 1227 in Mordone Br. Mus.; 1305 Mor- 

don CI. R. 

Originally '^mdr-dtln. OE r)idr = *^moor', 'waste (and damp) 

land'. The o of the first element has been shortened in 

ME before two consonants. 

Note. Wyld's suggestion, p. 191, that the first element of 
Moreton, Lanes., is OE ''^'^emare (= ^emdire) must be a mistake, 
as no unmutated variant of ^emcere exists. 

Murcott [mdd(r)lcdf] NNE of Malmesbury. 

1065 -fMorcotun CD no. 817; [n. d.] MorJcote, Morcote Reg. 
Malm. 

Originally ''''mdr-cot{e). The vowel of the first element 
was obviously shortened in late ME or early NE while it 
was at the stage il of its development (see Horn § 103: 2), 
after which it had the same development as the genuine 



129 

w-vowel (before r + cons.); see Horn § 65. The quoted 
CD form may represent the OE dat. plur., or — as seems 

more probable tun has been added by the scribe through 

the influence of the other pi. ns in -tun occurring together 
with this name m the charter referred to. 

Netheravon S of Enford. 

1086 {in) Nigravre, Nigravra DB; c. 1115 Netheravon Os- 
mund; 1149 — 53 Nederauena Round, Ancient ch. ; 1158 
Netheravcn Osmund; 1173 Nederauena Pipe R; 1212 de 
Nederaveh^ de Nethaveh 'R. L. CL; 122Q Nutheraven Osmund; 
c. 1290 de JSIytherhavene T. EccL ; 1316 de Nether avene FA; 
1331 of Netherhavenne Ch. E; 1428 in Nether Havene FA. 
Originally *«?^ nider-Afene or ^'cet pd'm nideran Afene. 
The DB forms are accounted for by Zachrisson, pp. 117, 
142 ^. For the initial h of the second element in some ME 
forms see under Avon. 

Netherhampton SSE of Wilton. 

1316 Nether Hampton FA; 1333 Nitherhampton CI. R; 
Nytherhampton C. Inq. 

The second element goes back to ^helm-tun (not ^hean- 
tun, as the place is situated in the Nadder valley). Nether 
serves to distinguish this place from the neighbouring 
Quidhampton, Chilhampton, and Ditchampton. 

Nettleton "WSW of Grittleton. 

944 '\at Netelintone, '\de Netelingtone CS no. 800 [possibly 
identical]; 956 -^at Netelingtone ib. no. 933; 1086 Niteletone 
DB; c. 1290 Netlinton T. Eccl.; 1316 de Neteltone FA; 



^ The suggestion of Jones, p. 226, that these forms represent 
^nigrum arvum\ a Lat. rendering of "^Black Heatli^ the name 
of the downs NW of Netheravon seems too hypothetical to be 
trusted, for Lat. *^arvum' would certainly not have been used to 
denote an unfertile heath. 



9 E. Ekblom 



130 

1324 Nettelton ib.; 1330 Netelton Ch. E; 1428 Netelton, 
Nehjlton FA; 1493 Nettleton Br. Mus. 

From ^'NijUelinga (or -^Nyttelan) tun, *Nyttel{a) being a 
diminutive of Nytta, a p. n. occurring in LVD. The reason 
why e has replaced y (i) in the first syllable must be assoc- 
iation with the subst. nettle, for OE y does not develop 
into e in this dialect. Cf. Ebbesborne, above. 

Netton NNE of Wilton. 

1308 Netton C. Inq.; early 14th cent. Neteton TN; 1322 
Netteton C. Inq. 

Possibly from OE '''net(t)-tun (an enlosure fenced in by 
nets'); cf. Stanton, Stockton. 

Newnton, Long NW of Malmesbury. 

681 •\Niuentu7i OS no. 58; 1065 Netventuna CD no. 817; 
1086 Neiventone DB 67 a; c. 1290 Niweton^ Neiiton T. Eccl.; 
1316 Neivynton FA; 1331 Long Neiventon Phillipps' fines; 
Edw. Ill de Nywyntone NI; 1428 Neweton FA. 

From an original "^OBt (pd^m) nleivan tune. The OE dat. 
n has consequently survived in this pi. n. as well as in 
the following. 

Newnton, North SW of Pewsey. 

892 ■\Norpniivetune CS no. 567; 933 If Nyw antun ih. no. 699; 
1086 Neweton DB 67 d; 1199 de Niwentoti Rot. Ch. [prob. 
identical]; c. 1290 Northnyweton T. EccL; 1296 North- 
neiuendo7i Pat. B; 1316 de Newentone FA; 1428 Nyweton, 
North Newton ib. 

See preceding name. 

Newton Toney ESE of Amesbury. 

1086 Neiventone DB 70 b; 1256 Neuton C. Inq.; 1270 
Niwetona (Umfridi de Bohiim), Niivetona {Johannis de Nevill) 
Ch. R; c. 1290 Neweton T. Eccl.; 1316 Nyiventon FA; 



131 

1363 Netvynton Tomj, Newenton Touny CI. E.; 1369 Newen- 
ton Tony Cal. Inq. ; 1428 Nyiveton Teny FA. 

See above. The change of -en- > ing is due to analogy 
with pi. ns, the first element of which contains a patrony- 
mic. The distinctive names are AN family names. For 
Toney' see Hildebrand, p. 343. 

Newton Without, South NNW of Wilton. 

943 ■\Sad Niivetune, in Niivantime CS no. 782; 1086 Neiven- 
tone DB 68 a; c. 1190 Sud Nyweton Macray; c. 1290 de 
Suthnywetone T. EccL; 1316 Neiveton FA; 1358 Newenton 
CI. R; 1453 Sotvtke Newton Cal. Inq. 

'Without' refers to the situation of this parish outside 
the municipal borough of Wilton, in which part of the old 
parish is incorporated. 

Norrington near Alvediston. 

1307 Northynton Ch. E; 1312 Nhorthyntone C. Inq.; 1331 
Northyngton Phillipps' fines; 1361 NorthynJcton C\. 'R; 1485 
Northyngton C. Inq. 

This name may be derived from *Nordinga tun, Nor ding 
being a patronymic of '^Norda, a shortened form of some 
name beginning with Nord- (e. g. Nordman^ Nordgar). The 
assimilation of r and d seems to have taken place at a 
rather late period. 

Norton SW of Malmesbury. 

931 -fNorthim, ■\Northon, ■\de ISortone CS nos. 671, 672; 
1065 "^Nortuna CD no. 817; 1086 Nortone DB no. 67 a; 
1222 de Northone Macray; c. 1290 Norton T. Eccl. 
OE *norp-tun. 

Norton Bavant NW of Heytesbury. 

1086 Nortone DB no. 70 c; c. 1290 Northton, Northone 
T. EccL; 1335 Norton Scydemor C. Inq.; 1428 Norton 
Bavent FA. 



132 

OE ''-'norp-tun. 'Bavant' (Bavent) and 'Sc^^demor' (Scuda- 
more) are family names ^. the former AN ; see Bardsley. 
The latter refers to the Petrus de Skydemore to whom 
Upton Scudamore owes its dist. name (see Rot. H. II, 
p. 277). 

Oakhill WSW of Himgerford (Berks). 

1257 HoehuUe, Hokhull C. Inq.; 1428 Hoklmll FA. 

The sense is obvious. For the initial h see under Avon. 

Oaksey NE of Malmesbury. 

1086 Wochesie DB; 1197 }yolesla Feet of fines; 1274 of 
Wockes{eie) C. Inq.; 1275 at Wohesei/e Ch. R; c. 1290 de 
Woleseye T. Eccl.; 1302 of Woleseije Ch. E; 1324 Wockescy 
FA; 1402 in WokJceseye ib.; 1428 Wolcesey, de Wockeseye ih. 
Pi-obably from '''■'Woc{c)es leg. A p. n. '■Woc{c) certainly 
existed in OE, if we ma}^ j^^^g'^^ from the local tvocces geat 
(CS nos. 594, 1080); see also Forstemann, Pers. 1628 f. 
The termination means 'marshy land^ (referring either to 
the east or south portion of the present parish, both of 
which have a low situation and are watered b}^ the 
Thames and the Swill brook respectively). For the loss of 
the initial iv see Horn § 173. 

Oare N of Pewsey. 

1232 in Ore Ch. R; 1316 de Ore FA; 1428 in Oare ib.; 
1498 in Ore C. Inq. 

Originally '^'ora, ^'cet {pdmi) oran (= border, edge). OE 
or a being a word chiefly used in pi. ns [e. g. on Wind- 
lesoran AS Chr. E (A. D. 1096) =-- Windsor, Berks.] The 
present name no doubt refers to the long well-marked 
edge of Hewish Hill, under which the village lies. 

Odstock S of Salisbur3^ 
1086 Odestoche DB; 1173 Odestoeha Pipe B; 1199 Odestoka 



1 Q 



See Jones, p. 226. 



133 

Feet of fines; 1281 Oddestock Ch. ii; 1816 de Oddestohe 
FA; 1428 OdestoJc, in Odestoke ib. 

Probably from '^'Odaii stoc. For the p. n. Oda see Forss- 
ner, p. 198 1 

Ogbourne St. Andrew ) „ ^ ^r ^^ ^ 

* N of Marlboroup-h. 

„ St. George ) 

1086 Ochehorne, Ocheburne DB; 1133 Occhehitrna Cal. France; 
c. 1190 Oclehurn ib.; 1208 Ohehurn Osmund; 1252 Ocke- 
hurn Ch. R; 1277 HoTceburn Pat. E,; Edw. I NorthoTcehirne 
Eot. H. (=0. St. George); 1316 Oklcehurm Parva FA (=0. 
St. Andrew); 0. Magna ib. (= 0. St. George); 1428 Okehurn 
Sandi Andree, Okehourne mhwri ib.; 0. SancH Georgii, 0. 
major i ib. 

Originally "^(^t Oc{c)au hurne [burnan], viz., the affluent 
of the r. Kennet. now called 'the Og' (a back-formation 
from Ogboiirne). '■Oc{c)a, recorded in the local ocan lea 
CS no. 627, ocean slceiv (prob. mistake for hlceiu) ib, no. 
1230, is probably a variant of the p. n. Ocea, which occurs 
among the signatories of several OE charters. The distinc- 
tive names refer to churches. 

Note. In this connection attention may be drawn to the 
name Ogletliorpe, W. R. of Yorks. Moorman's statement that 
Ogle- might represent the p. n. Acivulf cannot possibly be 
correct on account of the DB forms, which are Ocelestorp, Ogles- 
torp. I am, on the contrary, inclined to trace a diminutive 
form of ''''Oc{c)a, Ocea in this name, viz. *Ocel{a). 

Orcheston St. George ) .^^^ „ . . 

NW 01 Ames bury. 
St. Mary I -^ 

1086 (in) Orcestone, Oichestone DB; 1195 de Orcliesdeh Feet of 
fines; 1261 Orcheston C. Inq.; 1281 Horcheston Ch. R; 1314 
Ordrycheston C. Inq.; 1316 Orcheston FA; 1428 Orcheston 
Georgii ib.; 0. Boyvile ib. (= 0. St. Mary). 

From ''^Ordrices tiin, Ordric being an OE p. n. Cf. the 
development of Urchfont (Erchfont), below'. The distinctive 



134 

names refer to churches. 'Boyvile' (Bovill) is an AN family 
name (see Bardsley). 

Overton, West WSW of Marlborough. 

939 ■\Uferan tuny '\Oferan tun{es), -fOfretone CS no. 734; 
949 'Icet Ofoertune ib. no. 875 (possibly identical); 972 -^cet 
Uuertune ib. no. 1285; 1086 Ovretone DB; 1284 Overton 
Ch. E; Edw. I Westovtone Rot. H; 1316 Overton {Ahha- 
tisse) FA. 

Originally "^se ufer{r)a tun ^mt pcem ufer{r)an tune]. 

The distinctive name in FA refers to the abbess of 
Wilton, who is mentioned as tenant here in DB. 

Note. Kemble's identification of XJferantune CD nos. 1092, 
1094 with this place is erroneous. It is, on the contrary, 
identical with Overton (SW of Basingstoke), Hants, {cet) TJferantune 
CS no. 1152 is also identical with this Hants, place, although 
Birch incorrectly locates it in Wilts. 

Oxenwood ESE of Burbage. 

1265 Oxinwod Pat. R; 1332 Oxenetvode G. Inq. 
No comments needed. 

Patney SE of Devizes. 

963 wt Peatanige, to Peattanige, to Pittanige CS no. 1118; 
c. 1050 -^oet Peattanigge CD no. 949 (prob. identical); 1221 
Patenia Macray; 1284 Patney Ch. R; c. 1290 Pateny T. 
EccL; l?>m Pateneye Ch. R; 1331 m Pateneye C. Inq. 

The termination is OE le-^ (here = 'marshy land'). The 
first element can hardly be anything but a p. n. (of un- 
known origin), the same as that which occurs in ^Peatting 
tune CS no. 587. '^Pitta in Pittanige, if not merely a mis- 
take, is to be considered as a variant of '^Peatta^ formed 
from the regular patron3^mic of this name ^'Pi{e)tting\ Cf. 
Tud(d)a: ■^■Tyd(d)a, under Tedworth, below. 

Paxcroft ENE of Trowbridge. 
1253 Paclcelescrofte C, Inq. 



135 

The first element contains the diminutive of a p. n. which 
is certainly not on record independently but the existence 
of which is nevertheless proved by several local names: 
-fPeccinges CD no. 414, Pceccingas ib. nos. 481, 715, 896 (= Pat- 
ching, Sussex), ^Pakenhdm ib. nos. 851, 957, -\Pakinton ib. 
no. 916, '\Pakyngton ib. 939 (the two latter = Packington, 
Leics.), Padeshdm ib. no. 824. The termination is OE croft 
(= 'enclosed field'). 

Pertwood NW of Hindon. 

1086 Perteworde DB; 1166 Pteumrda Pipe R; 1200 Pertes- 
ivrdCj Perteswrih Phillipps' ped. fin.; 1324 Perteivorth FA; 
1365 Perteivorth Phillipps' fines. 

The first element was probably a p. n., the same as that 
which occurs in peartan heal^ CS no. 1282, p. 587, and 
Peartinga ivyrth ib. no. 262; cf. also Pertenhall, Beds, (see 
Skeat PL Ns of Beds., p. 23 f.) The first member of 
Pertnith, found on a coin of the time of Ceolwulf I, seems 
to be the same. The earlv forms show that the termination 
of the present pi. n. was originally OE weorp. 

Pewsey SSW of Marlborough. 

880 — 85 ■'feet Pefesigge, '\Pevesy, -\Pefesy CS nos. 553, 554, 
555; 940 Pevesige ib. no. 748; 108Q (de) Pevesie (lour times) 
DB; 1166 Peuesia Pipe E; c. 1290 Peveseija T. EccL; 1316 
de Peueseye FA; 1324 Peuesy ib.; 1428 de Peueseye ib. 

The termination is OE le^ (= marshy land). The first 
element most probably contains the p. n. Peiif, found in 
LYD beside the weak Peufa, probably of Celtic origin; 
see Miiller, p. 43. 

Pewsham SE of Chippenham. 

1263 Peusham Pat. E; 1284 Peicesham CI. E; 1288 Peu- 
wesham Cat. A. D.; 1298 Pewesham Pat. E; 1303 Pevesham 



^ Also written pyrtan h. in the same charter, for which cf. 
Pittanige (mod. Patney) above. 



136 

R. Pat.; 1307 Pewsham C. Inq. ; 1315 Fewesham ib.; 1320 
Powesham CI. R. 

Probably from '"^Peufes ham. For Peuf see preceding- 
name. 

Pltton E of Salisbury. 

1215—20 Piitton Osmund; 1246 Putton Ch. E; 1255 Put{t)on 
Pat. R; 1273 Puttone C. Inq.; c. 1290 Puttene T. EccL: 
early 14tli cent. Piton TN; 1316, 1402 Putton FA. 
I suggest an original '''pytt-tun; (pytt = 'pit'). 

Porton SE of Amesburv. 

«/ 

1086 in Poertonc (prob. identical), Portone DB; 1269 de 
Portone Macray; c. 1290 Portun T. EccL; 1316 Pourton 
FA; 1326 Porton C. Inq.; 1428 Porton FA. 
Tlie oriofin of the first element is obscure. 



& 



Potterne [yotd{r)n\ SSW of Devizes. 

1086 {in) Poterne DB; 1091 Potern Osmund; 1146 Poter- 
nam (Lat. ace.) Macray; 1148 Poternas^ ib.; 1195 Poterna 
Feet of fines; 1236 Poterne Ch. R; 1279 Poterna C. Inq.; 
1316, 1428 Potterne FA. 

The original form may have been '■^■Put(f)an cern; Put(t)a 
is recorded as an OE p. n.^ Cf. Chitterne, Colerne, Vasterne. 

Poulshot [pouljdf] SW of Devizes. 

1199 Paulesholt Rot. Cur.; 1220 — 28 de Paulesholte Macray; 
1228 Paleshot CI. R; 1272, 1219 Paul eshoH(e) C. Inq.; early 



^ The final -s is no doubt a mistake, cluo to the influence of 
Caningas, which occurs immediately before it in the document. 

^ To infer, with Skeat, PI. Ns of Beds., p. 54, an OE p. n. 
'■■Pot, '^Fot{t)a from the patronymic Pot{t)ing- (in ■\Potiingtun CD 
no. 1299, fPotintiin ib. no. 1358. and ■\potingdu7i ib. 1368) is 
rather dangerous, as it is impossible to know if the o-vowel is 
genuine. 



137 

14th cent. Pawelesholt TN; 1316 de Paulesholte FA; 1422 
Polesholt Cal. Inq.; 1428 Poulesholt FA. 

Originally "^Paides holt. The loss of I in the termination 
is due to weakened stress. Note the spelling pron. of the 
mod. name. 

Preshute Within [2^refdf] in the mun. bor. of Marlborough. 

„ Without adjoining the above. 

1185 Prestcheta Pipe E; 1223 de Preschete Macray; 1252 
PrescJmt, Preshiit ib. ; c. 1290 Prescut T. Eccl. ; 1313 de 
Purshute CL R; 1314 de Perslmfe ib.; 1320 of Pershute 
Pat. E; 1332 Preshute PhilHpps' fines; 1338 of Presf chute 
ib.; 1426 Presshiujte Cal. Inq.; 1428 Presthut FA; 1534 
Preshet Dugdale. 

This cannot possibly be a pure Germanic name. It seems 
as if the same Celtic word as occurs in Chute, above, is 
also present here. 

Purton N^" of Swindon. 

796 -fPiertean (corrupt), "^ide) Ptiritone, '\Perytuii, {^Puritun) 
CS no. 279 (prob. identical); 854 "^at Peritune (Pirigtime) 
ib. no. 470 (prob. ident.); 1065 •fPirituna CD no. 817 (prob. 
ident.); 1086 Piritone DB; 1257 in Peritoh E. fin. exc; 
1281 Peritone C. Inq.; c. 1290 Puryton T. Eccl.; Pyritoa 
C. Inq.: 1299 Pyryton Br. Mus. ; 1316 de Purytone FA; 
1428 Puryton ib.; 1494 Pereton C. Inq.; 1498 Pyrton ib.; 
1568 Perton alias Purton Cat. A. D. 

The first element is OE piri^e ^ *^pear-tree'. The forms 
with e in the first syllable have, no doubt, been influenced 
by ME xjere (< OE pere, pern = NE 'pear'). 

Purton Stoke N of Purton. 

1476 Puryton Stoke Cat. A. D. 

Originally '"^'oet [pcem] stoce; see under Baverstock. Purton 
is only a distinctive name (referring to the neighbouring 
Purton). 



138 

Quemerford near Calne. 

1240 — 45 Quemerford Macray; 1293 Quimerford Cal. Inq.; 

1370 Quemerford Phillipps' fines; 14:04, Quimerford Cal. Inq. 

It is impossible to identify the first element^. The form 

Cummer ford, quoted by Camden p. 106, must be corrupt. 

Quidhampton W of Salisbury. 

1287 Quidhamton C. Inq.; Edw. I QMe<i^am^^o?^ Plac. Warr. ; 
1324 Quidhamptone C. Inq.; 1331 Quedehmnpton Phillipps' 
fines; 1459 Qut/ddehampton Cal. Inq.; 1485 Quedham{p)ton 
C. Inq.; 1493 Quydhampton, Quedehampton ib. 

Quid- cannot possibly be a Germanic element. Cf. Quiden- 
ham Norfolk, (occurring as Cuidenham in DB, Quydenham, 
Quidynham C. Inq.). -hampton goes back to OE "^ham-tun. 

Rabson N of Avebury. 

Edw. I Eahbedesfone Eot. H; 1316, 1428 Rahhedeston FA. 
From ^'Radhodes tun, Radhod being a Continental-Ger- 
manic p. n.; see Forssner, p. 205. The loss of t in the 
second element is due to weakening; cf. Hodson, above. 

Ramsbury NW of Hungerford (Berks.). 

909 {ad ecclesiam) Corvinienscm Osmund (prob. referring to 
this place); 947 frammeshuri CS no. 828 (prob. ident.); 1023 
Coruiniensis (ecclesice) CD no. 737 (prob.); 1086 Ramesherie DB; 
1091 Rammeshiri Osmund; c. 1125 RamesheriaW . Malm.; 1146 
Rammesheriam (ace.) Macray; 1196 Rameshif Feet of fines; 
1227 Remmisbiri Ch. R; 1240 Ramesblri ib.; Remmesbure 
Macray; 1275 Ramsbury Ch. E; 1294, 1300 Remmesbury 
ib.; 1316 Rammesbury FA; 1428 Remmesbury ib. 

It is often a matter of mere conjecture to say whether 
the common elements Raven-, Ram- in Engl. pi. ns origin- 



^ An OE p. 11. ''Civenmer can hardly be assumed, as tlie 
member -mer (whicli would here represent mdru) is quite un- 
known in female names. 



i 



139 

all}^ represent OE Jircefn (hrcemn) = 'raven', or the Scand. 
p. n. Baf{e)n (see Bjorkman, Pers. I, p. 109). In the present 
name, hoAvever, the latter alternative is strongly supported 
by the character of the second element. For the develop- 
ment of Bafn > Ramn, see Biilbring § 485. The ^-voAvel 
in the first syllable of some ME forms is due to the in- 
fluence of the bird's name, ME rem (< OE hrem). 

Ratfyn near AmesburA^ 

1086 RotefeId{e) (twice) DB^; c. 1115, 1226 Rotefen Osmund; 
1270 Rothefen Ch. R; c. 1290 Roffen T. EccL; Edw. Ill 
Rothefen NI; 1428 Roffen FA; 1540 Rothfenne Dugdale. 

Probably from ^Hrojjan fen{n), *IIropa being a pet-form 
of some p. n. beginning with Hrop-, e. g. Hropgar, Hrop- 
muncl (see Mliller, p. 105 f.). The change of o> a is due 
to the dialectal peculiarity mentioned in connection with 
Calcutt, above. It is curious that the weakening of the 
second element has resulted in -fyn {fin) instead of fdn. 
For the unusual rendering of intervocalic (5 by t m early 
ME documents see Zachrisson, p. 115, foot-note. The later 
change of j^ > ^ is due to the following fricative. 

The place has a low situation by the East x4.von. 

Ridge E of Hindon. 

1407 Rugge Cal. Inq.; 1558 Ridge Br. Mus. 
'The ridge' (of the down). 

Rockley NW of Marlborough. 

1086 {in) Rochelie DB; 1221 Rohel R. L. CL; 1270 Roclea 
Ch. R; 1273 Rode C. Inq.; 1299 RouUeij Cal. Inq.; 1316 
Roucle FA; 1335 Rookie C. Inq.; 1428 Rohele FA; 1485 
RoJceley C. Inq. 

n 

^ This place is certainly situated in Ambi'esbury hundred, and, 
if not identical with modern Ratfyn. the places seem at least 
to be connected with each other on account of the similarity of 
the first elements. 



140 

Probably from an original *(et pceni (peers) hroc-Iea^e (OE 
hroc = 'rook^). The on in Cal. Inq. and FA may denote 
simply 0. 

Rodbourne S of Malmesbury. 

701 '\Bedhurna (latex), [■\Reodburna] CS no. 103; 758 ^'Reod- 
huma (latex), [\Botbiirne] ib. no. 185; 844 •^Bodhurne ib. 
no. 444; 982 "fReodburna, '\Rodburne CD no. 632 (prob. 
identical); 1065 Rodburna ib. no. 817; 1232 Redburn CI. K 
(or = R. Cheney); 1316 Rodburne FA; 1453 Roddeborne 
Cal. Inq. (or = R. Cheney). 

Originally '^cet pceni (pcere) hreod-burnan (^cet pr£re hreod- 
burne), burne referring here to the little affluent of the 
Lower Avon which flows south of the ancient *^Corsburn^ ^ 
(mod. Gauze brook). OE hreod = 'reed'. Shifting of stress 
has taken place in the OE diphthong. 

Note. There seems no reason to locate (on) Hreodhurnan, 
■\Hredhurnan CD nos. 1146. 1185 in Wilts., as is stated in Kemble's 
index. 

Rodbourne Cheney NNW of Swindon. 

1086 Redborne DB; c. 1290 Rodeburn T. EccL; 1316 Rod- 
burne FA; 1428 Rodebourne, Rodeburn ib. 

This name, which has obviously the same derivation as 
the preceding one, designated originally the little stream 
here that runs into the r. Hay (an affluent of the Thames). 

'Cheney' is an AIST family name, see Bardsley; and Jones, 
p. 229. 

RoIIestone [roulsVn'] W of Amesbury. 

c. 1290, 6?e Rolvestone T. EccL; 1428 Rolveston, RoulestonYK^ 
This name obviously contains the Scand. p. n. Rolf, for 
which see Bjorkman, Pers. I, p. 113. The termination is 
OE tun. 



^ See under Corston, above. 



141 

Rood Ashton SE of Trowbridge. 

1475 Bode Asshefon Cal. Inq. ; 1596 Rowde Asheton Br. Mus. 
See Steeple Ashton, below. The distinctive 'RoocV must 
refer to a cross which formerly existed here. 

Roundway [or 'Roundaway'] NNE of Devizes. 

1316 Byndeiceij FA; 1337 Ryndivay Phillipps' fines; 1428 
Byng{e)ivei/ FA; 1491 Bundeivey C. Inq. 

The most plausible origin of this name is "Hringan rueg 
i^'cet Hringan we^e)^, "^Hringa being a hypocoristic form of 
such p. ns as Hrmgwine, Hringwulf. The modern Boimd- 
is in that case easily explained as a popular development, 
caused by ME '^Bun-, an AN rendering of Byng-; (cf. 
Groundwell, Landford, above). 

Rowde [roud] NW of Devizes. 

1086 Bode DB [prob. identical]; 1205 Bodes, Budes R. L. 
CI.; 1221, 1223 Budes Pat. E; 1261 Boudes ib.; c. 1290 
Boudes T. Eccl.; 1316 Boudes FA; 1318 Boude CL R; 1330 
Bo^id Pat. R; 1428 Boives (corrupt) FA. 

It is not improbable that this name represents OE rude f. 
(plur. riidan) = mod. 'rue' (a plant of the genus ^Ruta', 
formerly used for medicinal purposes). Bowde may conse- 
quently be a pi. n. analogous with Bedwyn, BremJiill, above. 
Most of the ME forms show" substitution of strong plur. 
ending for the original Aveak one. 

Rushall [rdfl] SW of Pewsey. 

1086 Busteselve (corrupt), BusteseUe^ DB; 1160 Busteshala 
Pipe R; c. 1200 de Busteshale Osmund; 1207 de Btistes- 
hall R. Oblat.; 1258 BusteshaJ C. Inq.; 1284 Busteshell 



^ The possibility that the adj. Vound' formed part of the 
original name is, on the contrary, not supported by the quoted 
ME forms. 

" Or possibly meant to be Lustesellc, as is supposed by Jones, 
p. 230. in which case it would be identical with Lushill. 



142 

Pat. B; of Eosteshale CI. R; 1285 (m) Rusteshale Ch. U: 
c. 1290 <ie Rusteshale T. EccL; 1316 rfe Rusteshale FA; 
1397 Rusthalle Cal. Inq. 

Originally "^Rnstes {Rustanl) heall (or healh). A p. n. 
*Rust (^Rusta) is not on record, but its existence seems 
authenticated by the local Rustington, Sussex, (see the old 
forms quoted by Koberts, p. 136), and ^rusting den CS 
no. 459. 

Salisbury or New Sarum. 

1146 Sarisherice (Lat. gen.) Macray; 1205 Saleshif Rot. Qh..\ 
1218 Sarrishurie Pat. R\ 1227 Novcb Sarum {Sarisherice) 
(Lat. gen.) Macray; 1232 Sarresbiri, of Saresherie Ch. R; 
1258 New Sarum C. Inq.; 1268 apud Sareshyriam Ch. E,; 
1270 Sareshury ib.; 1289 Sarrum C. Inq.; 1316 Nove Saris- 
burie (gen.) FA; 1336 Salesbirs Pat. R; 1376 Saresbirs CI. R; 
1428 Nova Sarisburia FA. 

See Sarum, Old, below. For the final s in the forms 
of 1336, 1376 see Westphal § 24. 

Salterton NNW of Sahsbury. 

1309 Saltertone, Salterton Derneford C. Inq.; 1428 Salter- 
ton FA. 

Originally *sealtera {sealteresl) tun. OE sealtere, saltere 
= 'a Salter", 'dealer in salt\ Cf. sealtera cumh CS nos. 158, 
727, '\{on) Salter forda ib. no. 1109, saltera iveg ib. no. 
1282, p. 588. The distinctive Derneford refers to the neigh- 
bouring Durnford. 

Salthrop SE of Wootton Bassett. 

1086 Salteharpe DB; 1198 Sauteharp Feet of fines; 1240 
de Saltharp' CI. R; early 14tli cent, in Saltharepe TN; 
1328 Saltharpe C. Inq.; 1428 Saltharp FA. 

Originally ^sealt-porp, probably denoting a place where 
salt was stored for sale. Salt- is a rather common element 
in Engl. pi. ns. It is curious that in all the ME forms the 



143 

termination shows weakened stress. Has the element possibly 
been influenced by the dialectal tendency to change o > a 
(see Calcutt)? 

Sandridge NW of Devizes. 

1418 Sandrigge Cal. Inq. 
The meaning is obvious. 

Sarum, Old N of Salisbury. 

[552] cet Searo hyrg AS Chr. [A], Searo hyrig ib. [E], Sceles- 
heri ib. [F]; [1003] to Seafhjrig ib. [E, F] ; [1085] to Scare 
hyrig ib. [E]; 1086 Sarisberie DB; 1091 Sarum Osmund; 
[1096, 1099, 1100, 1106] {on, of, cet) Sear hyrig ib. [E]; 
[1123] of Seres hyrig, of Sceres hyrig, of Seares hyrig ib. 
[E]; [1125] of Swreshyrig ib. [E]; [1126, 1130] of Sceres hyri 
ib. [E]; [1132] of Seresheri ib. [E]; [1137] of Sereheriih. [E]; 
1195 Veteris Sarum (gen.) Macray; 1218 apud Veteres Saris- 
hirias ib.; 1319 Old Sarum C. Inq.; c. 1540 Old-Sareshyry 
Leland. 

Old Sarum is a place of great antiquity and is generally 
considered to be the '"Sorhiodunum {Sorhiodoni, Sorvioduni) 
mentioned in Antoninus' Itinerary. If this is the case, it 
seems not improbable that Searo- in Searohyrig may be 
simply an AS corruption of the first element of the Celtic 
name (no other pi. n. containing OE seam is on record). 
The insertion of s in the composition-joint is due to ana- 
logy with other pi. ns in -hyrig, which as a rule have a 
gen. s. The change of r > I is due to AN infl.; see 
Zachrisson, pp. 120, 130. 

Sarum was formed from the first element of Sareshiiry by 
means of the Latin ending -um, (see Zachrisson : Some Inst, 
of Lat. Infl. on Engl. PL Nomencl., p. 11); cf. Meldum 
under Malmesbury. 

Savernake (Forest) SE of Marlborough. 

933 Safernoc (silva) CS no. 699; 1221 de Savernak E. L. 
CI.; 1223 de Severnak ib.; 1232 Savernak Ch. E; 1246 of 



144 

Saverndke ib.; 1248 Savernae ib.; 1306, 1333, 1355 SevernaJc 
CI. E; 1354, 1426 SavernacJc Cal. Inq. 

This name can hardly be Germanic. Guest, p. 61, states 
as his opinion that it is connected with the name of the 
River Severn, which he takes to be derived from the Irish 
sabQi)rann (= boundar}^) ^, Savernalce representing an adj. 
'''sab{h)ranach from this snbst. [coif (=Svood^) understood]. 

Seagry SSE of Mahnesbury. 

lOSQ SegrieBB; 1207 Segreij 'Rot. Gh.; 1211 Segre R.h. CI; 
c. 1220 Segreya Br. Mus.; 1232 in Segreye, Segrey Ch. R; 
1258 Segrc C. Inq.; 1316, 1428 Segre FA. 
The etymology is obscure. 

Sedgehill SW of Hindon. 

1398 Seggchull Cal. Inq.; 1493 Seggehill C. Inq. 

The first element most probably refers to the plant-name 
sedge, the assumption of an OE p. n. ''-'Sec^a being hardly 
justified. 

Seend W of Devizes. 

1203 Sendes Rot. Ch., Cal. Eot. Ch.; 1269 Sende C. Inq.; 
1282 Sende ib.; 1286 m Sende Ch. E; 1316, 1402, 1428 
de Sende FA. 

This is no doubt the same word as is contained in the local 
wt Scndan CS no. 1063 (according to Birch = Send, Surrey), 
perhaps also the same as the first element in senthylle 
ib. no. 216, and '\senet ricge ib. no. 1282, p. 587. It seems 
not impossible that Middendorff, p. 115, is correct in assuming 
that we have in this word an English equivalent of the 'ober- 
deutsch' sente (= Yiehof, Yieherei)^, but it is curious that there 



^ See Stokes, p. 289, and Holder II, p. 1272. 

" On the other hand it is quite impossible to see why Mid- 
dendorff at the same time connects this word with German 
Sende (= Binse), as this word was semida in OHGr. 



145 

are no other traces of the word, not even in the English 
dialects. 

Semington NE of Trowbridge. 

1470 Semington Br. Mus. 

Originally *Semmga (or "^Semmi) tmi. An OE p. n. 
^Sema is certainly to be connected with the Scand. Scemingry 
Semingr (see Lind). Cf. '\Semes lod CS no. 125, and next 
name. 

Semley NE of Shaftesbury (Dors.). 

955 |o?i Semeleage CS no. 917; c. 1190 Semele Macray; 
Edw. I SemeligK Rot. H; 1316 de Semeleghe FA; 1428 
Semele ib. 

*(jet Seman leage. For *Sema see preceding name. 

Sevenhampton [called 'Sennington"] SSE of Highworth. 

Hen. Ill Sevehampton Cat. A. D.; 1262 Sevenhampton C. 
Inq. ; 1276 Sevehampton Ch. R. ; Sevenht., Sevehampton Br 
Mus.; 13th cent. Suvenhantone Liber rub.; 1313 Sevene- 
hampton Pat. R; 1316 Sevenhampton FA; 1330 Senhampton 
Pat. R. 

'The seven homesteads'. The loss of the original plur. 
s may be due partly to the early weakening of the first 
element, owing to which its meaning has been forgotten, 
and partly to the influence of the singular -hampton in 
other pi. ns. Sevenhampton, Glos., is also called 'Senning- 
ton'; for this contraction cf. sennight. For the ?*-vowel in 
the Liber rub. form, see under Bemerton. 

Note. It is very uncertain whether fSeofonhcemtune CD no. 
767 and -fSeofenempton ib no. 1324 refer to this place. 

Shalbourne [f(jelhd{r)n, fQlhd{r)n] SSW of Hungerford 
(Berks.). 

1086 Scaldehurne (three times), Saldehorne DB; 1242 Scaude- 
brne R. fin. exc; 1253 Schaldesburne IPsit.l^; c. 1290 Schal- 

10 E. Ekhlovi 



146 

dehorn T. Eccl.; 1329 Westshaldebourne C. Inq. ; 1375 Chalde- 
hourne CI. R; 1428 Shaldebourne FA; 1493 Shalburne C. 
Inq.; c. 1540 Chauburne Leland. 

Originally "^cet (pa;m, pcere) scealdan human {*cet poire se. 
burne), viz. the little affluent of the r. Kennet which 
passes here. For OE *sceald (NE shoal), which is only 
recorded in pi. ns, see Stevenson, Trans, of the Philol. 
Soc. 1895—98, p. 532, and NED (under 'shoaF)i. ch for 
sh in two of the forms above is merely orthographic (see 
Zachrisson, p. 37 f.); cf. Chatv, Charnton, Cherston {~ Sha,v^\ 
Sherrington, Sherston, below). 

Note, {on) Scealdehurnan CD nos. 598, 600, 1082, 1084 was most 
probably in Soms. and not identical with Shalbourne, Wilts., 
as is stated in Kemble's index. The same error is made by 
Birch, CS no. 611. 

Shaw NW of Melksham. 

1166 Schaga Pipe E, (prob. identical); 1199 in Saghe Rot. 
Cur. (prob. ident.); 1285 Shaghe Cal. Eot. Ch.; 1370 Chatv 
Cal. inq. da.; 1428 in Shaive FA; 1495 in Shawe C. Inq. 
OE scea^a (= shaw, copse). 

Sherrington. SE of Heytesbury. 

968 -fSchearntune Reg. Wilt.; 1086 Scarentone (tAvice) DB: 
1130 — 35 Serenton Osmund; 1166 de Slier intoh Pipe H; 
1247 Sernton C. Inq.; 1252 Sherinton Pat. R; 1281 Sherton 
Ch. R; c. 1290 de Schertone T. Eccl; 1299 Scharnton Pat. R; 
1316 Sharenton FA; 1324 Schrynton ib.; 1327 Sherntone 
C. Inq.; 1337 Sharneton R. Pat., Pat. R; 1375 Charnton 
Cal. Inq.; 1413 Sherrimjton Br. Mus.; 1428 Sharrenton, 
Schernton FA. 

Originally ^'scearn-tun; OE scearn = ' dung\ 'filth'. Cf. 
Scearndmi CD no. 518, Scearnden ib. no. 700, cBt See am - 



^ Middendorff's explanation of the element in question (p. Ill) 
seems quite absurd. Note also Searle's incorrect assumption of a 
p. n. *Scealda. 



147 

forda ib. nos. 710, 1298. The later insertion of -ing- is 
due to analogy with those pi. ns that contain the patro- 
nymic -ing. 

Sherston WSW of Malmesbury. 

[1016] cet Sceorstane AS Chr. [E], oet Scor[s\tane ib. [D] 
[perhaps identical]; 1086 Sorestone (or = Sherston Parva), 
Sorstainl DB; 1167 Scorestan Pipe E; c. 1200 Sorestan 
Osmund; 1204 Sorestan R. Pat., de Sorestan E. L. CL; 
c. 1207 Sorestane Br. Mus.; 1227 Schorestafi Omxiund; 1237 
Shorestan Ch. E; Schorestan Pat. E; 1240, 1247 Shorestan 
Ch. E; 1248 Sherestan ib.; 1252 Schorstan ib.; 1280 Sher- 
ston Magna Pat. E; Edw. I in Sereston Plac. Warr.; c. 1290 
Scherston T. EccL; 1316 Sherston FA; 1334 Sherston C. 
Inq.; 1337 Sharston E. Pat.; Magna Cherston Pat. E; 1338 
Sharston ib.; 1340 Magna Sherstan ib.; Shareston E. Pat.; 
1428 Sherston FA. 

It is obvious that the termination of this name was OE 
stdn. The first element I am inclined to think is the same 
M''ord as NE shore. This is certainly not recorded as an 
independent Avord till the 14th cent., but is found in pi. ns 
as early as the 11th cent.: Shoreham, Sussex, occurs as 
Sorham Cal. France A. D. 1073, and as Sore{s)ha DB; Shor- 
well, Isle of Wight, as Soreivelle DB. In the case of the 
Sussex name it is evident that the first element denotes 
'sea-shore', and this may also have been the case with 
Shorivell (although this place at the present day is situated 
at a distance of 2 miles from the coast). But it seems 
also to be a fact that the element in question occurs in 
names of places situated far inland: Shorediteh SSE of 
Taunton, Soms., Shoreham N of Sevenoaks, Kent, Shore, 
near Rochdale, Lanes., and the name under notice. Judging 
from these names, it would seem as if shore might origin- 
ally have denoted not only 'border between land and 
water but also 'border between two different territories'; 
(of. the significance of OE ora). This explanation is specially 



148 

suitable in the case of Sherston on account of its situation 
near the borders of Grlos. Sherstoyi may consequently have 
meant 'boundary-stone'. 

The change of o > e in the first syllable, which did not 
take place until the change of -staii > -ston, is most prob- 
ably to be considered as a dissimilatory process. 

Note. McClure's explanation, p. 286, foot-note II, that the 
first element represents OE scear, the name consequently denoting 
%i stone with a sharp edge' is impossible. If this was the case, 
how is the o vowel to be explained? 

Sherston Parva or Pinkney near Sherston. 

1316, 1428 Sherston Parva FA. 

'Pinkney', according to Bardsley an AN family name, 
refers to E-alph de Pinkeny, who held lands here in the 
13th cent.; see Jones, p. 232. 

Shorncote NW of Cricklade. 

1086 Schernecote DB; 1234 de Sernekote CI. R; 1268 Sernekote 
C. Inq. ; c. 1290 de Cernecote T. EccL; 1316 de Cernecote FA; 
1334 Cornecote C. Inq.; 1397 Sharnecote Cal. Inq. (prob. 
identical); 1428 Cernecote, in Shernecote FA. 

Zachrisson, p. 159, who gives this name as an example 
of the change of tf>f, due to French influence, suggests 
that it may be derived from the River 'Churn (like Ciren- 
cester^ Glos.). The present situation of the place is cer- 
tainly about a mile from this river, but it is probable, 
however, that Zachrisson's view is correct. 'Churn' is of 
course a Celtic name (see Baddeloy, pp. 38^ 42). 

Shrewton WNW of Amesbury. 

1236 Winterhurn Shyreveton Ch. R; Winterburne Sireveton 
Cal. Rot. Ch.; Edw. I in Schreveton Plac. Warr.; c. 1290 
S chirr eneston T. P]ccl. {n mistake for r); 1302 Wy7itrehu7m 
Shirveton Pat. R; 1310 Sherrevetone, Wynierhorn Sherretonc 



149 

C. Inq. ; 1316 Slier evetoyi FA; 1S22 Wynterbourn Schireueton 
0. Inq.; 1428 Shereveton FA. 

Originally *scir^erefan tun. For sclrgerefa (sheriff) see 
NED. The distinctive name refers to the affluent of the 
Wiley that passes here (see Winterbourne Stoke, below). 

Slaughterford NW of Corsham. 

1175 Slachtoneford Pipe B; c. 1290 Slahteford, Slalit ere ford 
T. EccL; 1298 Slaghteneford CI. E; 1299 Slaghtenford Pat. R; 
1300 Slaghtenford ib.; 1316 Slaghterford FA; Edw. Ill 
Sla(u)ghtenford NI; 1428 Slaghtreford FA. 

According to Camden, p. 103, tradition has connected this 
name with a great slaughter of the Danes which was suppos- 
ed to have taken place here. Stevenson, who takes the oppor- 
tunity of discussing the etymology of this name in his edition 
of Asser's Life of King Alfred, p. 275 f., clearly proves, 
however, that it has nothing to do with the subst. '^slaughter' 
and consequently that the tradition has no foundation. Ste- 
venson suggests, on the other hand, an etymology which seems 
very probable. On account of the forms with the first element 
in -n (which occur too frequently to be merely orthographical 
mistakes) he derives this element from OE sldh-porn (= sloe- 
thorn). Cf. Slaughter and Slaughterford, Glos., which are 
analogous; (see the old forms quoted by Baddeley). 

Smithcot W of Wootton Bassett. 

1086 Smitecote DB; early 14th cent. Smithcot, Smethecote, 
in Smezecote TN; 1428 in Smethecote FA; 1536 to Smethcote 
Br. Mus. 

Originally '^'smippe-cot{e) or perhaps *smipes cot(e). OE 
smippe = 'smithy'. As to t for th in the DB form, see 
Zachrisson, p. 115, foot-note. The change of i>e is dis- 
cussed under Biddestone, above. 

Somerford, Great and Little SE of Malmesbury. 

683 Sumerford CS no. 65; 931 Sumerford ib. no. 671; 956 
pomerford ib. no. 922; 1065 Sumerford CD no. 817; 1086 



150 

Sumreford, in Somreforde DB; 1232 Sumerford Cli. li; 1252 
Somerford Maudut Cal. Eot. Ch. (= Little S.); 12^4: Sumer- 
ford Maudut Pat. E.; 1333 Somerford Mauduyt Br. Mus.; 
1428 Sooner ford Magna, Parva FA. 

The name indicates that the Avon at this place was only 
fordable in summer. 'Mauduit' (Maldoit) is an AN family 
name; see Hildebrand, p. 338. For further information 
see Jones, p. 235. 

Note. Sumerford CD no. 714 and '\{to) Sumceres forda ib. no. 
1093 were not in Wilts, although Kemble states that they were. 
The former may be Somerford Keynes, Glos., and the latter 
was situated in Surrey or Hants. 

Sopworth W of Sherston. 

1086 Sopetvorde DB; 1252 Shoptvurfh Ch. E (corrupt); 
Edw. I de Suppeworth' Plac. Warr. ; c. 1290 Soppewrth, 
Soppeivroth T. EccL; 1316 de Soppeiuorthe FA; 1318 Soppe- 
worth Ch. E; 1428 Soppeivorth FA. 

From '^Soppan weorp. The first element is obviously 
the same p. n. as occurs in the local Sop2)anhyrig CS no. 
582. A corresponding German Soppo is recorded by Searle. 
Cf. Sop well, Herts, (see Skeat, PI. Ns of Herts., p. 53) and 
Sopley, Hants. (1086 Sopelie DB, 1262, 1274 Soppele, C. Inq.). 
As to d for th in the DB form, see Stolze § 38. 

Southbroom St. James adjoining Devizes. 

1227 Suthhrome Macray; Suthhrmi Ch. E (corrupt); 1231 
Suthbnim Pat. E; 1308 Suthhrom Br. Mus.; 1491 in South 
Brome. 

The second element is OE hrom. 'St. James' is the name 
of a church. 

Southwick SW of Trowbridge. 

Hen. in Southwick Br. Mus.; 1322 (of) Sotheivyke Ch. E. 
For wiclc (OE wlc) see under Berwick (Bassett). 



151 

Standen NE of Ludgershall. 

1086 Standene DB (identical according to Jones); 1249 
Standeii Ch. R; 1327 Staundene Cal. Inq. 

Originally '^stan-dene (denu). For Staunden see Zachris- 
son § 9. 

Note. Standene CD nos. 133, 430, fStaunden ib. no. 520 p. 
417, and Standene ib. no. 1235 were obviously not situated in 
Wilts., as Kemble assumes. The first of these seems, however, 
to be identical with North Standen, (Berks.) near the Wilts, 
border. 

Standlynch SSE of Salisbury. 

Edw. I Stanling' Eot. H; 1361 Stallynch Br. Mus.; 1388 
Stanlynch ib.; 1403 Stanlynch Phillipps' fines. 

Originally *stdn-hlinc. OE hli7ic = 'rising ground', 'ridge'. 
For the inorganic d in the mod. form cf. Horn § 185. 

Stanton Fitzwarren SW of Highworth. 

1086 Stantone DB 74 a; c. 1290 Stauntofi T. Eccl.; 1316 
Stau7iton FA. 

Originally '^stan-tun, which may have denoted 'an enclos- 
ure fenced in by stones' as well as 'an end. on stony 
round'. 'Fitzwarren' is an AN family name. 



Of 



Stanton St. Bernard E of Devizes. 

903 Stantun"^ OS no. 600; 957 Stantun^ ib. no. 998; 960 
Stantun^ ib. no. 1053; 1086 Stcmtone DB 67 d; 1267 de 
Sfantofie Macray; c. 1290 Staunton T. Eccl. 
'St. Bernard' is a famil}^ name. 



^ The identity is not quite certain but may be assumed on 
account of the fact that "^Wodnes die' is mentioned among the 
boundaries. The statement in Birch's CS that they represent 
S. Fitzwarren is, however, quite incorrect. 



152 

Stanton St, Quintin NNW of Chippenham. 

1086 Stantone DB 72 d; 1286 Stanton St. Quintin Ch. R; 
c. 1290 Staunton T. Eccl. ; 1428 Staunton (Sancti Quintini) FA. 
'St. Quintin is an AN family name. 

Stapleford NNW of Wilton. 

1086 Stapleford DB; c. 1115 Stapetford Osmund; 1139? 
Stapelford Macray; 1239, 1322 Stapleford Ch. R; 1428 Sta- 
ptdford FA. 

The first element is WS stapol = ^a post', 'a pillar' (prob- 
ably erected here to indicate the shallow place in the 
stream). 

Staverton [stwvd{r)fn] N of Trowbridge. 

1086 Stavretone DB; c. 1540 Stavertun Leland. 

This name is most probably to be derived from ■'■'stcefera 
(or ^'stwferes) tun, OE ''^stcefere being a nomen agentis from 
st(Ff (= letter, character), consequently^ meaning ''a scribe' 
(cf. hocere). Cf. Staverton, Northants., which occurs as '\(to) 
stcefer tune CS no. 792, p. 542, Staverton, Glos.^, and Star- 
ton, Warws. ^ 

Steeple Ashton E of Trowbridge. 

880—885 cet JEsctune, -fde Asclc{e)tune CS nos. 553 — 55 
[prob. identical]; 1086 Aistone DB; c. 1290 de Hastone, 
Astone T. Eccl; 1316 Asshton FA; Edw. Ill Stepell Asschton 
NI; 1470 Stepulasshton Br. Mus.; 1485 Stepid Aisshton 
C. Inq. 

The original name, which also indicated the neighbouring 
Hood Ashton and West Ashton, seems, on account of the 
first CS form above, to have been cesc-tun (OE a^sc = ash- 
tree). scJc for s{c)h (in CS) is, no doubt, merely orthographic. 



^ See the old forms given in Baddeley, p. 146, and Duignan, 
PI. Ns of Warws., p. 106. The explanations given by these 
scholars seem, on the contrary, far from convincing. 



I 



153 

Note. Birch's identification of yAshtone CS no. 1127 with 
this place is very doubtful, for the boundaries given do not 
point to this. There is just as little reason for identifying 
fAscesdune CD 246, jAysshedoune ib. no. 415, and -fees dune ib. 
no. 446 with any of the present Ashtons in Wilts., though 
Kemble does so. 

Steeple Langford NW of Wilton. 

957 |o>i langan ford CS no. 992 ; 963 cet langanforda ib. 

no. 783; 1086 Langeford^; 1256 Lange ford C. Inq.; c. 129a 

Langeford Magna T. EccL; 1294 Stepel Langeford Pat. E,; 

1309 Stupellangeford C. Inq.; 1316 Steppul Lang ford FA. 

The original name also refers to the adjoining Hanging 

L. and L. Little (see above). 

Note. There seems no reason for locating j-Langeforth CS no. 
901 in Wilts., as Birch does. 

Stert SE of Devizes. 

1086 Sterte DB; 1269 Sterte C. Inq.; 1311 Steurte Pat. E; 
1313 Steorte CI. R; 1315 (of) Sterte Ch. E; 1326 of Sturte 
Fine E; 1330 Steorte E. Pat.; 1333 Sturt CI. E; 1342 
Sturte Cal. Eot. Ch.; 1402 in Steerte FA; 14:28 in Sterte ih . 
OE steort {= tail; projecting point). Stert is situated on 
the greensand in the Pewsey valley below the escarpment 
of the chalk-downs, and, as is often the case in the green- 
sand districts, projecting spits or points beside deep, narrow 
valleys are found here. It is evident that such a spit 
must have given the present place its name. For ME u 
representing OE eo see under Bemerton. The mod. spelling- 
is archaic. 

Stitchcombe E of Marlborough. 

1086 Stotecome DB; 1216 de Stotecumbe E. L. CI.; 1227 
Stutescumh' CI. E; Edw. I de Studescombe Eot. H; 1316 ^e 

^ There are three Langefords in the Imndr. of Branche men- 
tioned in DB (fol. 68 a, 68 d, and 72 a) each probably referring 
to one of the three mod. Langfords here (Hanging L., Little L., 
and Steeple L.). 



154 

Stutescomhe FA; 1414 Stotescombe Phillipps' fines; 1424 of 
Stotescombe Cat. A. D. 

We may assume an original "^Stutan cumb^ ''^Stuta being 
probably a hypocoristic form of some compound p. n. with 
Stut- as the first member, of which '''Stutheard and *Stuthere 
seem to have existed, judging from the local '\{to) stutardes 
cumbe CS no. 814 and Kon) shiteres hylle ib. nos. 179, 628, 
905. Cf. also '\stuting CD no. 773 (= Stowting, Kent?). The 
late change of 8tut{e)s- > Stitch- must be due to popular 
etymology. It is interesting to notice a similar development 
in another name: Stu{t)chhiinj, Northants. (early 13th cent. 
Stutesbyr Br. Mus., c. 1230 Stotesbur ib.). For the absence 
of b in the I)B form see Stolze § 34. 

Stockley S of Calne. 

1335 Stohkele Cal. Inq. (prob. identical); 1445 Stockley Cal. 
Eot. Ch.; [n. d.] of StocMeghe Cat. A. D. 

*cBt [pmm, pcere] stoc(c)'leagp (probably = 'a meadow with 
stumps of felled trees'). 

Stockton SE of Heytesbury. 

1086 Stottune DB; 1130 — 35 Stoctun Osmund; 1189 Stocton 
Br. Mus.; 1284 Stocton Ch. R; c. 12^0 de StottoneT.^GoX.] 
1316 StoUon FA. 

OE *stoc{c)-tun (pr-obably = 'an enclosure fenced in with 
stocks or posts'), t for c in two of the forms aboA^e is an 
error (due to the similarity of these letters). 

Stoford [stoufd{r)d] N of Wilton. 
1284 Stoford C. Inq.; 1352 Stouford CI. R; 1453 Stofford 
Cal. Inq.; 1559 Stovorde Br. Mus. 

Probably from '^stow-ford; OE stow = 'placed "^dwelling', 
'house'. Cf. Stowford, below. 

Stoke Farthing hi of Broad Chalk, 
c. 1190 Stokes Macray (prob. identical); 1258 Stokes Ch. R; 



155 

1273 StoJc C. Inq.; 1316 StoJce Verdon ib.; 1316 de Stoke 
FA; 1-128 in StoJce Verdon ib. 

*cet [p(^7n] stoce [stocuml^]; see under Baverstock. 'Far- 
thing' is nothing but a corruption of the French surname 
'Verdon . 

Stokke [stok] near Gr. Bedwyn. 

1230—40 Stoh de Stoke Macray; 1312 Stokke Cal. Inq.; 
1335 Stoche C. Inq.; 1360 La Stoke Cal. Inq.; 1428 in 
Stokke FA. 

OE stoc = 'place'. Stokke is an orthographic contamina- 
tion of "Stock (< OE stoc) and Stoke (< OE cet stoce). 

Note. (cBt) Stoce CS do. 611, CD nos. 1082, 1084 is certainly 
not identical with this place, as is stated by Birch and Kemble. 
but was probably situated in Soms. 

Stonehenge [stounhentf]. 

12th cent. Stanhenges Luard, Ann.; Stanenges Henry of 
Huntingdon. 

Stonehenge^ the extensive group of megalithic stones on 
Salisbury Plain, W of Amesbury, is, no doubt, derived 
from OE '^stan-henc^a (plur.). OE "^'henc^ f. (< prim. Germ. 
''^hangjci-; cognate with hangian) is ME heng{e), NE hinge 
(of. MLG henge f.). In order to explain the meaning of 
the name it is necessary to state that the so-called outer 
circle at Stonehenge consists of standing stones upon which 
other blocks of stone are laid horizontally^. The original 
^stdn-henc^a may therefore refer to these horizontal stones 
which appear to 'hang' on the others. For the date of 
Stonehenge see Guest, p. 212 ff. 



^ The plural forms in Macray and Ch. R. may of course 
equally probably have originated in ME. 

^ Originally there were 30 upright stones and as many hori- 
zontal ones; at the present day, there are only 17 of the former 
and 6 of the latter left. 



156 

Stourton [std9(r)fn] NW of Mere. 

1086 Stortone DB (prob. identical); 1199 de Sturtoh U. Oblat.; 
1255 Storton Pat. E; 1291 Sturton C. Inq.; 1299 Stourton 
Cal. Inq.; 1315 Stotirtone C. Inq.; 1428 Stourton FA; c. 1540 
Stoiirtouyi Leland. 

The place has got its name from the River Stour, which 
rises in this neighbourhood ^ Stour is a Celtic name ^. 

Stowell NW of Pewsey. 

1300 StoweUe Ch. R. 

Probably from OE '•'stdw-/vyll(e). OE stow = 'place', 'dwel- 
ling', 'house'. 

Stowford SW of Bradford. 

1458 Stowford Br. Mus. 
See Stoford, above. 

Stratford sub Castle NW of Salisbury. 

1091 Stratford Osmund; 1316 de Stratforde ¥A; USb Strat- 
ford (-under-tJie-Castlc-of-Old-Sarum) C. Inq. 

OE "^strM-ford. Two Roman roads crossed the Avon here: 
the road running south-west to Dorchester and Eggardou 
Hill, and the road west towards the Bristol Channel^. The 
village is situated at the foot of the hill on which the 
fortified Castle of Old Sarum was situated. 

Stratford Toney SW of Sahsbury. 

670 -fStretford CS no. 27; 826 -fStretford ib. no. 391; 905 
'\Stretford ib. no. 690; 948 -fStretford ib. no. 863; 961 
■\Stretford ib. no. 1071; 986 ■\Stretford CD no. 655; 997 
\str6tford ib. no. 698; 1086 Stradford DB; 1309 Stretford 
C. Inq.; 1315 Stratford Tonij, 1316 de Stratforde FA. 

' Leland says about this place (part X): 'The ryver of Stoure 
riseth there of 6 fountaines or springs'. 

^ That the river name in question should have been introduced 
from the Continent, as is assumed by Jelhnghaus, p. 333, seems 
most improbable. 

^ See Guest., p. 218 ff. [The four Roman ways.] 



157 

OE "^ street-ford. The Roman road between Old Sarum 

and Dorchester crossed the r. Ebble at this place. For 

Stradford cf. Bredford. (Britford). For the distinctive name 

see Newton Toney, above. 

Note. yStreteford CD no. 398, ^Stretforde ib. no. 460, and 
'\StrcBdford ib. no. 571 were obviously not identical with this 
place (as is stated by Kemble). The two former were situated 
in the NW corner of Wilts, (or perhaps in Glos. near the Wilts, 
border), the latter near the r. Kennet (between Marlborough and 
Avebury). 

Stratton St. Margaret NE of Swindon. 
Stratton. Upper adjoining the above. 

1086 Str atone DB; 1279 Ketherestratton, Overestratton Cat. 
A. D.; 1304 Overe Stratton Cal. Inq.; 1316 Stratton Inferior, 
Stratton Superior FA; 1427 Stretton sancf Margaref Cal. 
Rot. Ch. 

OE ^strdit-tun. The places are situated on the ancient 
Roman road which passed between the ancient Cunetio 
(near Marlborough) and Cirencester (Glos.). 'St. Margaret' 
is the name of a church. 

Studley W of Calne. 
1194 Stodleia Rot. Cur.; 1232 Stodleg Ch. R; 1240 de 
Stodlege Macra}-. 

Originally "^cet [fdem, pcere^ stod-Iea^e; OE st od = 'sti\d\ 
^herd of horses'. 

Surrendell SW of Malmesbury. 
1086 Sirendone DB [prob. identical]; 1316 Suryndene FA; 
1330—35 Cyrendene Br. Mus.; 1428 Serenden FA; 1567 
Sorenden Br. Mus. 

The first element may have contained a p. n. '-'Si/ra, 
probably the same as occurs in Sirintone (Sussex) DB, 
Sirestun (Notts.) ib., and mod. Syresliam (Northants.) [1284 
Siresham FA]. Judging from the present situation of the 
place, the termination seems to have been denu (dene). The 
change of the final 7i into I Avas a dissimilatory process. 



158 

Sutton Benger NNE of Chippenham. 

854 ta^ Suttune CS no. 470; at Sudtune Thorpe; 956 "Tfde 
Suttone CS no. 922 (possibly identical); 1065 •\Suttuna CD 
no. 817; c. 12d0 Suttone T. ^cc\.; ISIQ de Sottone'F A; 1377 
Siideton Berenger E,. Pat.; 1488 Sutton Benger C. Inq. 

OE sud-tun. 'Benger is a contraction of the French 
'Berenger\ 

Note. Sudtmi CD no. 319 was in Dors, (not in Wilts., as is 
stated in Kemble's index). 

Sutton Mandeville SE of Hindon. 

1086 Sudtone DB 72 b (identical according to Jones); 1275 
Sutton {Maundevyle) C. Inq. 1428 Sutton {Maundevyle) FA. 
See above. 'Mandeville' is an AN family name. See 
Jones, p. 234. 

Sutton Veny near Heytesbury. 

1086 Sutone, in Sudtone DB 72 b, 73 b; 1225 Magna Sutton 
Pat. R; c. 1290 Fenni Sutton T. Eccl.; 1298 Great Sutton 
Ch. R; 1316 Fenny Sutton C. Inq.; 1341 Fenny-suttoyi 
Br. Mus. 

See above. According to Bardsley, 'Fenny' is a native 
family name. The use of v initially in place of f (just as 
z for s) is, according to Ellis, p. 38, one of the most con- 
spicuous features of the western Mid Southern dialect. (Cf. 
Vasterne, Zeals, below). 

Swallowcliffe SE of Hindon. 

940 Stvealewandif, to Sivealewanclife CS no. 756; 1086 
Svaloclive (three times) DB; 1150 — 60, 1220 de Sivaleiveclive 
Osmund; 1275 of SivalJclyfe, Sivaluweclive C. Inq.; 1288 — 
92? in SualwecUffe Br. Mus.; c. 1290 de Swaluclive T. Eccl.; 
1339 Swalclyff Pat. H; 1428 in Swaluclyve, de Sivalu- 
dyffe FA. 

'The swalloAV-clifP. Bjorkman, Pers. I, p. 134, gives a 
Scand. p. n. Sualeua, but there is no reason to assume a 



159 

p. n. here. Cf. SwalcUffe, Oxfs. (Alexander, PL Ns of Oxfs.),. 
and Swalecliffe, Kent, both of the same origin. 

Note. Whether {cet) Swaletvanclife CS no. 874 (CD no. 1176) 
was situated in Wilts., it is impossible to say. In CS it is 
given as identical with Swalecliffe, Kent, in CD with Swallow- 
cliffe, Wilts. 

Swindon. 

1086 Svindune, (ih) Svindone DB; 1205 de Sivinedoh R. L. 
CI. ; 1252 Sivindon Ch. R; Edw. I in (Alta) Sivvrnden Rot. H; 
1302 Hautesivyndon Rot. Orig. ; 1304 (juxta) Altmn Swyndon 
Cal. Inq. ; 1323 Swijndon Valence C. Inq.; 1324 Swyndon 
Valence Fine R; Heghe Swyndon FA; 1386 Hisivyndon Cal. 
Inq.; 1488 Hi Sivynden C. Inq.; 1495 Thevyn ^ Stvyndon ih. 
Originally *swln(a) dim. The old forms above obviously 
refer to different parts of the place. 'Valence^ is a French 
surname. For further information about it see Jones, 
p. 235. 

Tedworth or Tidworth, North SW of Ludgershall. 

1086 Todeiv(o)rde (three times) DB; 1178? Thudeivrda Jo- 
hannis Marescalli, T. Hogonis de Lacy Br. Mus. ; 1199 de 
Thodesivrth Hug de Lasci, Thotvrtha Joins Maresc Rot. Ch.; 
1205 Tudeivord, Thudesivrth R. Oblat. ; early 13th cent. 
Tudetvorth Br. Mus.; 1227 Tudeuurth Ch. R; 1232 Tucle- 
worth ib.; 1234 de TuddeiviirtK CI. R; 1270 Tudeworda 
Johannis Marescalli, T. Hugonts de Lacy Ch. R; 1278 North- 
tudewrthe C. Inq.; 1289 Todeivorth ib.; 1S14: Northtodeivoj'th 
ib. ; 1316 de Tudeworthe FA; 1324 Todeivorth Meleivys "Pat. R; 
1428 Tudetvorth FA. 

In the case of this name it seems necessary to assume 
two orit^inal variants: '^Tud{d)an iveorp (represented by the 
many ME forms with o in the first syllable) and '^Tyd{d)an 
weorp (which has survived). ^Tyd{d)a is to be explained 
as formed from '^'Tyd{d)ing, the patronymic of Tud(d)a (for 

^ = The even. 



160 

this p. n. see Miiller, p. 60). Cf. the discussion of the 
first elements of Dur ring ton, Lydiard, Patney, above. The 
mod. Ted- is due to the influence of a dialectal tendency 
to change i > e (see under Biddestone). 

Of the distinctive family-names 'Melewys' (Melhuish) is 
native, the others are AN. See also Jones, p. 237. 

Teffont Evias or Ewyas | ^^r o ^tti, 

> W of Wilton. 
„ Magna ) 

860 -\he Tefuntc CS no. 500; [940 •fteofuntinga gemcere ib. 
no. 757]; 964 -^at Teofunten, -fad Teofontem ib. no. 1138 
[perhaps identical]; c. 1290 Teffunte T. Eccl.; 1292 de 
Tefhunte Pat. E; 1316 de Teffunte FA; 1335 Teffonte Ewyas 
C. Inq. ; 1374 Tefent Br. Mus.; 1428 in Teffonte Eiuijas, 
Tevent FA; 1493 Over Teffent C. Inq. (= T. Magna). 

I derive this name from '^Teoivan font (ftoit), '-'Teowa being 
a hypocoristic form of such a name as e. g. "^Teowald 
(Tiuuald, Tiouald, see Miiller, p. 85). Cf. the local "^teoue 
lege, Ifteofe leoge CS no. 204, {^)teowes pome ib. no. 279 
(the latter prob. in Wilts., near Purton). OE font i^funt) 
= ""fountain", 'weir. In the earliest ME, the iv has been 
assimilated to the following f and the long vowel has 
normally been shortened before two consonantal sounds. 

For the distinctive name, see Jones, p. 79, foot-note. 

Thickwood W of Chippenham. 

1086 Ticoode DB; c. 1460 ThiJcwode Cal. Rot. Ch.; [n. d.] 
Thicwode, pycwode Reg. Malm. ; 1540 Thychewood Dugdale. 
The sense is clear. As to the AN substitution of t for 
initial J>, see Zachrisson § 2. 

Throope near Stratford Toney. 

1328 Throp, Thorp C. Inq.; 1428 Le Throp FA. 

Originally '"^cet pcem prope. The mod. spelling is archaic. 



161 

Tidcombe SE of Burbage. 

1086 Titicome DB (prob. identical); early Hen. Ill Tyde- 

ciimbe Br. Mus.; 1230—40 Ttjdecomh Macray; 1252 de Tite- 

cambe Ch. R; 1285 Tidecombe C. Inq. ; 1298 of Tytecumbe 

Ch. E; 1315 Tidecomh C. Inq.; 1316 de Tydecomhe FA; 

1339 Tidecomhe Huse Pat. U; 1428 de TydecombeFA; 1489 

of Tytcombe C. Inq. 

From "^Tldan cumb ('^(Et Tidan cumbe). T'lda is certainly 

a shortened form of some name beginning with Tid-, of 

which there are a great number. As to t for d in the DB 

form, see Zachrisson, Stud, i mod. sprakvet., p. 8 f. The 

t in the other forms is due to assimilation with c (e having 

been syncopated). The distinctive *Huse' stands f or 'Hus(s)ey\ 

according to Bardsley an AN family name. In the time of 

Edw. I the manor was held by Hubert Hussey (Rot. H. 11, 

p. 260). 

Note. Tiddancumb CD no. 1216 cannot possibly be identical 
with this place, as is suggested by Kemble. 

Tidworth see Tedworth. 

Tilshead on Salisbury Plain. 

1086 Theodulveside, m Tidulfhide (four times) DB; 1167 
Tidolfeshida Pipe R; c. 1185 Teolvesia Cal. France; c. 1190 
Tidolveshyde Macray; 1225 de Tydulveshide, de Thidulveshide 
Pat. R; 1238 Tidelveshid ib.; 1246 Teovelsia C\\.^\ Edw. I 
Tydolvesheved, de Tydelvesyde^ de Thidelf}iyde Plac. Warr. ; 
early 14th cent. Thididfhide, Tidulfeshid (several times) TN; 
1397 Tileshed, Tileshide Cal. Inq.; 1428 in Tydelsyde, de 
Tydolveshyde FA; 1450 Tydelsyde Cal. Inq.; 1492 in Tydel- 
vessyde C. Inq. 

Originally '■'Tldwulfes hid (see Fi field). Theodulveside (DB) 
and Teolvesia (Ch. R) display confusion Avith the p. n. 
Theodivulf (see on this point Zachrisson, p. 46, foot-note). 
On the interchange between t and th see Zachrisson, p. 
47 f. The termination has, after w^eakening, been changed 
into -head through popular etymology; (cf. Fifield). 

11 E. Ekblom 



162 

Tinhead NE of Westbury. 

1240 — 45 de Tynhide, de Tunhide Macray; 1249 Tynnehid 
Pat. ll\ 1250 Tinehid ib.; 1280 de Teenhide Cli. R; 1316 
de Tenhyde FA; 1402 de Tynliide ib. 

Originally Hlen {tyn) hi da; cf. Fifield. For the develop- 
ment of the second element cf. preceding name. 

Tisbury SE of Hindon. 

759 -fTissehiri CS no. 186 [prob. identical]; 901—924 '\to 
Tysse hyrig ib. no. 591; 984 ■\(Et Tissebiri CD no. 641; 1086 
Tisseherie DB; c. 1200 de Tissiherie Osmund; 1225 Tysse- 
hury ib.; 1316 Tyssebury FA; 1SS2 Tisbury Br. Mus.; 1333, 
1413 Tyssebury ib.; 1428 Tissebury FA. 

Originally '''''cet Tis{s)an byrig. ■^Tis(s)a is certainly not 
recorded as an independent p. n. but its existence is never- 
theless certain. A patron^anic of the name is found in 
Tissington, Derbs. ; see Walker, p. 250. Tiso, its Contin- 
ental equivalent, is recorded in Foi'stemann, Pers. 411. 

Tockenham SW of Wootton Bassett. 

854 •\Tockenham CS no. 481 {Tocccmham CD); 1086 Tocheham 
(five times) DB; 1194 Tolcha Eot. Cur.; 1202 Thokenham 
Phillipps' ped. fin.; c. 1290 ToBim T. Feci.; imo Tocken- 
ham Ch. R; 1316 TokJcenham Y A ; 14:1b ToJcenham Bv. Mua.; 
1424 ToJdngham Cal. Inq.; 1428 Tokham, Tokkenham FA. 
Originally {^)Toc{c)an ham. For the p. n(s) Tocca, Toca 
see Bjorkman, Pers. I, p. 142 f. 

ToUard Royal SE of Shaftesbury (Dors.). 

1086 ToUard (three times) DB; 1262 ToUard C. Inq.; 1316 
de ToUarde FA; 1428 ToUard ib. 

Probably from '^'Tolan eard (OE eard here = home, property). 
Tola is, according to Bjorkman. Pers. I p. 143 1, a p. n. 
of Scand. provenience (< ToU). 

'PoyaF refers to King John, who had a hunting-seat at 
this place (see Jones, p. 237). 



163 

Trowbridge. 

1212 Trouhriuj R. L. Pat.; 1214 Troiihrigg ib. ; 1215 de Tro- 
hrigg E. L. CI.; 1236 Trouhrig Ch. E; 1250 de Treivbrigge 
Macray; 1310 Trehrigg C. Inq. ; 1316 de Troiihrigge FA; 
1322 of Troubrigge Ch. R; 1394 de Trouglihrigge Pat. R; 
c. 1540 Throughbridge, Thorough-bridge Leland. 

OE ^'treow-bryc^ ('wooden bridge"), with a shifting of stress 
in the OE diphthong. The corrupted forms in Leland are 
due to a misconception about the first element. 

Trowie (Common) near Trowbridge. 

1086 in Trole DB; early 14th cent. Trulle TN; 1349 Troll 
Br. Mus.; 1372 Tro/Z Cal. Inq. ; 1414 Tro// ib.; UTS Trellih. 
The origin of this name is not clear. 

Tytherington near Heytesbury. 

1086 Tedrintone DB (prob. identical); c. 1140 Tyderinton 
Osmund; 1150 — 60 Tiderinton ib.; c. 1290 Tuderyngton 
T. Eccl. 

From ^Tidheringa tun; Tldhere is a p. n. occurring in 
LVD. For the NE change oi d > th see Horn § 181. 

Tytherton Kelways and Tytherton Lucas NE of Chip- 
penhamx. 

1086 Terintone (twice), Tedelintonel DB; 1194 Tidrinton 
Rot. Cur.; 1272 Tiderintim Cat. A. D.; 1316 de Tiideryntone 
FA; 1327 Tuderyngtone Caloivey C. Inq.; 14:28 Tuderyngton 
Caylewey, Tyderyngton FA; [n. d.] m T(li)ederingdone, de 
Thederingedonc, Thederingdune, T(h)uderinton Reg. Malm. 

From '^'Tldheringa tiin; see preceding name. For the AN 
interchange of -ring and -ling see Zachrisson, p. 138 ff. On 
the initial th in the Reg. Malm, forms see ib., p. 47. 

Adam Lucas and Elyas da Kaylewey^ are mentioned as 
land-holders here in TN, pp. 137, 142. 

^ referring to the adjoining estate now called Kellaways, 
for which see above. 



164 

Ugford W of Wilton. 

956 {^)ucganford CS no. 1030 [eg representing ggy, [1045 
•\Uggafordinga landscore CD no. 778]; 1086 Ocheforde, Oge- 
forde DB; c. 1190 Uggeford Sancti Johannis Macray; 1195 
Uggeford Feet of fines; 1227 Uggeford Ch. R; 1275 Huge- 
ford C. Inq.; c. 1290 Hugeford T. Eccl. ; 1327 Ugeford St. 
James G. Inq.; 1328 Uggeforde St. James ib.; 1428 Oge- 
ford FA. 

Original!}^ {^)Uggan ford, '''Ugga being, no doubt, identical 
with the Scand. p. n. Uggi. Cf. Ughill, W. R. of Yorks. 
(see Moorman) and Uggesball, Suffolk (Skeat, PI. Ns of 
Suffolk, p. 47). ch for g in one of the DB forms may be 
due to the influence of Ochehurne (mod. Ogbourne) occur- 
ring in DB four times. 

The distinctive names refer to churches. 

Upavon or Uphaven N of Enford. 

1086 of Oppavrene DB; after 1142 Upavene^v. Mus. ; 1172 
TJpeauena Pipe R; 1194 de Hupliaueh, de Uppatvne Rot. Cur.; 
1199 in Uphaueu Feet of fines; 1226 Ophaven Osmund; 
1240 de Up Aven R. fin. exc; 1316 de Uphavene 'F K\ 1324 
in Hupphavene ib.; 1337 Uppehavene Pat. R; 1428 in Upha- 
vene FA. 

Originall}^ "^wt up-Afene (^'cet pcem uppan Afenel). For 
the initial h see Avon, Hacklestone, above. Zachrisson, 
p. 142, gives Op)pavrene (DB) as an example of the AN 
change of n > r in pi. ns. It would, however, be more 
correct to say that the form in question has been written 
under de influence of Nigravre (= Netheravon), occurring 
on the preceding page in DB, for r in Opavrene is obviously 
not due to an^^ substitution; (but Nigravre itself is of course 
an example of the change in question). 

Uppington N of Stapleford. 
1411 Uppington Br. Mus. 



165 

Other pi. ns which are to be taken into consideration 
here are Uppingham, Rutland (1166 Uppingeha Pipe R, 
Edw. I Uppingham Rot. H, 1315 Uppyngham C. Inq.), 
Uppington, Salop (1342 Upinton C. Inq., 1352 Opinion ib.), 
and also fupping hcema gemcera CS no 1315. 

Although it is impossible to prove that the -ing- element 
in these names is not genuine, yet there is a strong prob- 
ability that it is not. It is much more probable that the 
element in question goes back to uppan, dat. of the adj. 
up{p) (= 'high-lying^), the original names being consequently 
ycet p^m uppayi tune, etc. with a later change of -an > -ing 
(a development quite analogous with that of the weak gen. 
-an > -ing; see Alexander, Mod. Lang. Rev. VII, p. 70). 

The same element is, no doubt, contained in the local 
on Uppan ufre CS no. 332. 

Note. Middendorff's statement that pi. ns of this kind contain 
the OE preposition uppe, uppan is a strange mistake. 

Upton WSW of Hindon. 

1284 Upton Ch. R; 1402 Upton FA. 
OE "^hip-tun. 

Upton Lovell SE of Heytesbury. 

957 cet Uhhan tune, [ubhanttminga gemcere] CS no. 992; 
1086 Uptone DB; 1130—35 Vbbeton Osmund; c. 1290 de 
Ubetone T. Eccl.; 1314 Ubeton C. Inq.; 1316, 1428 Ubefon 
FA; 1476 Ubbedon Lovell Cal. Inq.; 1489 Updon Lovell 
C. Inq. 

The first element is the p. n. Ubba, a diminutive of which 
is concealed in Ebbesborne (see above). 'Lovel(l)' is an AN 
family name; see Hildebrand, p. 338. 

Upton Scudamore N of Warminster. 

1086 Opetone DB; 1221 de Obetuh R. L. CL; c. 1250? de 
Uptone Macray; 1267 Upton Escudemor Ch. R; 1316 Upton 



166 

FA; 1335 Upton Scydemor C. Inq.; 1428 Upton [Escuda- 
mor] FA. 

Originally '^'up-tun. The distinctive name (for which see 
Bardsley) refers to Peter de Skydemore, who was a land- 
holder here in the time of Edw. I; see Rot. H. II, p. 277. 

Urchfont or Erchfont SE of Devizes. 

1086 Jerchesfonte DB; 1175 Erchesfonta Pipe E; 1179 t/e 
Archesfu7ite ib.; 1205 Erchesfont R. Oblat.; 1237 de Herches- 
fimf CI. E; Edw. I Urcheffoiit Eot. H; c. 1290 de Orche- 
funte T. Eccl; 1291 in Ercheffunte VslL U: 1292 in Erche^s- 
funte Ch. E; early 14th cent, de UricJicsfimte TN; 1314 
Erchefont Cal. Eot. Ch.; 1316 de Erchesfonte FA; 1349 
Erchesfounte Cal. Inq.; 1377 Lerchesfonte ib.; 1378—99 
Erchesfont Br. Mus.; 1428 de Orcheffante FA; 1546—48 
Erchefount Br. Mus. 

This name goes back to an original '^'Eardrices font (funt). 
'■^Eardric is certainly not on record, but its existence cannot 
be doubted Avhen we consider the great productivity of 
Eard- in the formation of OE p. ns. The initial j in the 
DB form is due to change of stress in the OE diphthong 
(see on this point Zachrisson. p. 65 f., and Sievers § 212, 
note 2). How are we to account for the initial ME u- and 
o-vowels? It has been pointed out above that it in early 
ME may represent OE eo (see under Bemerton). As, 
however, ME e is also a representative of the same diphthong 
(particularly before r + consonant, which is the position of 
e in the present name) confusion between e and w may 
easily have taken place. For a secondary ii to be rendered 
in its turn by o is very common. The u in the mod. form 
must of course be explained in a different way, being 
due to the fact that ur and er have been levelled in pro- 
nunciation in NE. Mod. ErcJifont is itself an archaic form. 
The initial I in Lerchesfonte (Cal. Inq.) represents the French 
article. 



167 

Vasterne [v{Bst9{)')n] near Wootton Bassett. 

1-234 Fosterne Cal. Eot. Ch.; 1235 of Fasternc Ch. U; 1266 
la Fosterne R. Pat.; 1280, 1290 La Fasterne C. Inq.; Edw. I 
de Wasturne Eot. H; 1299 Fasterne E. Pat.; 1300 {in) 
Fasterne Ch. E; 1331 La Fasterne ib. 

Probably from *Fcestan cern, "^Fcesta being a pet-form of 
some name beginning with Fcest-, of Avhich '-^Fcestrecl (occur- 
ring in DB as Fastradus, Ellis, Intr. II, p. 316) and -^Fcest- 
wulf (Fastulf, Fastolf) are on record. Note also fcestan falod 
CS no. 702, and fcestan dc CD no. 652. For the second 
element cf. Chitterne, CoUerne, Potterne, above. On the tran- 
sition of the initial f > v see under Sutton Yeny. o in 
two of the ME forms quoted is, no doubt, a s})elling 
mistake. 

Wadswick SW of Corsham. 

late 12th cent. Wadestvica Br. Mus.; 1226 WadeswyJce Cal. 
Eot. Ch. ; 1288 Waddisivyhe Dugdale. 

Originally '■Wades (or- ■■Wadan) imc\ of the cognate p. ns. 
Wade and Wada, the weak form is the more common; see 
Miiller, p. 62. 

Walcot near Swindon. 

1086 Walecote DB; early 14th cent. Walecot{e) TN; 1324 
Wal{l)ecote FA. 

Most probably from ''Wealan cot{e), "^Weala being a hj^po- 
coristic form of some p. n. beginning with Wealh-, several 
of which are recorded. For the loss of h see Sievers 
§ 218. 

Wan borough [wonbdrd] ESE of Swindon. 

854 -feet Wenbeorgen, ^oit Wenbeorgan, \Wenberglf, ^to ivcen- 
beorgan CS nos. 477, 478; 1086 Wemberge DB; 1146 Wan- 
herga Macray; c. 1180 Wamberga Osmund; 1194 de Wenbge 
Eot. Cur.; 1205 Wameburg Cal. Eot. Ch.; 1229 ofWaiiberge 
Ch. E; 1245 Wamberge Br. Mus.; 1252 of Wamherge Ch. H] 



168 

1285 Wmiberg C. Inq. ; Edw. I Wamherewe Abbr. Plac. ; 
1310 Wamherge, Wanhrogh C. Inq.; 1316 deWanibergheYA.\ 
1349 Wamhenve Cal. Inq.; 1354 Wenhurgh CI. H; 1374 
Wanebergh ib.; 1428 Wamhurgh FA. 

By some scholars (among them Ch. Phimmer) this place has 
been thought identical with Woddesbeorge, Wodnesbeorge (dat.) 
AS Chr. [A. D. 592 and 715]. From the old forms quoted 
above it is obvious, however, that this identity is im- 
possible on linguistic grounds. It is true that there is a 
tendency among the Wilts, dialects to change o > a, but 
this transition is of a very late date (hardly older than 
the end of the 15th cent.); cf. Calcutt, Ratfyn, WansdyJce, 
Wraxhall. A circumstance which also militates against a 
derivation from Woden is the development of WansdyJce (see 
below). What the first element is it is difficult to say for 
it seems hardly to be Germanic; it may perhaps represent 
some p. n. [cf. Wanmgore DB (Sussex)]. The second element 
was OE beorh; see Brokenborough, above. 

There is another ^ anhorough in Surrey, occurring in DB 
as Weneberge. 

Wansdyke [won&daik]. 

903 ivodnes die CS no. 600; 933 ivodnes die ib. no. 699; 
957 ivodnes die ib. no. 998; 960 wodnes die ib. no. 1053; 
970 Wodnes die ib. 1257; Hen. Ill Wodenesdieh Dugdale; 
1260 Wodenesdieh Ch. R. 

Wansdyke is an ancient British earthwork, originally 
extending from Andover, Hants., through Wilts., to the 
Bristol Channel at Portishead. As appears from the old 
forms above, the ditch has got its name from the god 
Woden. The mod. termination represents the OE dat. form. 
On the change of o > a see under Calcutt. The mod. 
pronunciation [ivon-\ is a spelling pron. 

It is interesting to notice that what is left of the same 
earthwork in Hants. (N of Andover) is called Wodensdyke. 



169 

Wardour SW of Tisbuiy. 

901—924 cet Weard oran CS no. 591; im^inWerdoreDB; 
1314 Werdore C. Inq.; 1316 de Wer dure FA; 131S Weredore 
C. Inq.; 1392 Werdour R. Pat.; 1428 in Wardore FA. 

Provided the form recorded in CS is genuine, the name 
is composed of the subst. weard (= watch) and ora (= bank, 
viz. of the r. Nadder). Does the name refer to some look- 
out stations on the bank of the river during the early 
wars in Wessex? Cf. on Wearddune CS no. 1176, translated 
in Bosworth-Toller with ^beacon-hilF. 

Warminster. 

901 — 924 Worgemynter CS no. 591 (prob. ident.); 1086 Guer- 
minstre DB ; c. 1115 Werminister Osmund; 1174 de Werre- 
ministf Pipe R; 1222 Weremenestr. Osmund; 1226 WerminisU\ 
ib.; 1231 of Werministre Ch. R; 1259 de Wer(e)menistre Mac- 
ray; Edw. I Wereministre Br. Mus.; 1316 de Weremynstre 
FA; 1320 de Wermunstr' Rot. Orig. ; 1324 in Wer emy sire 
FA; 1402 de Wermestre ib. ; 1428 de Wermynstre FA; 1471 
Warmester Br. Mus.; 1496 Warmester, Wermester C. Inq. 

The first element is the name of the little stream called 
Hhe Were' that passes here and flows into the Wiley. Were 
[wid{r)\ is, no doubt, a Celtic name. The termination is 
OE mynster = 'monastery\ The absence of n in some forms 
must be due to AN influence (OFrench moustier). 

Water Eaton E of Cricklade. 

1372 Watereton CI. R; 1428 Eton FA. 

OE *ea-tun (ea referring to the Thames). The pleonastic 
'Water has been added to distinguish the place from 
'Castle Eaton'. 

Wedhampton ( ~ — ) SE of Devizes. 

1349 Wedhampton Cal. Inq. ; 1500 Wedhampton Br. Mus. 
Probablv from ''^'weod-ham-tun. OE iveod = 'weed'. 



170 

Weiiow, West SP: of Whiteparish. 

c. 670 on tvelewe CS no. 27; 826 on iveleive ib. no. 391; 
880 — 85 cet Welewe ib. no. 553 (possibly identical); 905 on 
tvelewe ib. no. 690; 948 on iveleive ib. no. 862; early 14th 
cent, in Wilewe TN; 1316, 1428 in Weleive FA; 1493 in 
Wellotve C. Inq. 

This name, which originally denoted the stream on which 
the village is situated (an affluent of the r. Test), is most 
probably pre-Germanic. There is another Wellotv in Soms., 
obviousl}^ referred to in CD no. 643: cet Weleive (stoce), on 
weleweQieia). 

Note. Kemble's location of TJeluue (flumen) CD no. 115 and 
(cpA) Welowe ib. no. 1105 seems to be merely a conjecture. 

Westbrook NE of Melksham. 

late Hen. II in Westebroche Br. Mus.; 1266 de Westehrolc 
R. fin. exc. 

Originally "^'cef west-l)rdce (a little affluent of the Lower 
Avon). 

Westbury. 

1086 Westberie, Wesberie DB; c. 1115 WestUri Osmund; 
c. 1145—50 Westherie Macrav; 1227 Westbire ib.; 1229 
Westbury Ch. E. 

' '''cet ivest-byrig. For the loss of t in one of the DB forms 
see Stolze § 36. 

Westport St. Mary (Within and Wilhout). 

1232 Westport Ch. R; 1251 Westport Cal. Rot. Ch. 

'The west gate' (leading to the town of Malmesbury). 
One part of the present parish lies within the borough of 
Malmesburv. 

Westrop (Park) near Higliworth. 
Edw. I in Westhroj^p Rot. H; 1324 Westhorp FA; 1410 of 
Westhrope Br. Mus. 

OE '^west-porp {prop). See Eastrop, above. 



171 

Westwood SW of Bradford. 

1086 Wesfwode DB (prob. identical); 1285 Weshvod Cli. E; 
1316 Weshvode FA. 
OE '^luest'ivudu. 

Wexcombe SE of Burbage. 

1158 Westcuba Pipe R; 1167 Wexcuba ib.; 1172 Westcumba 
ib.; 1173 Wex Cumba ib.; 1231 de Wexcumh\ de Westi/- 
cumh' CI. R; Hen. Ill de Westciimhe Rot. H; 1214^ofWexe- 
ciimhe CI. R; 1275 {of) Westcmnhe Ch. R; 1288 de Woxe- 
cunibe Rot. Orig. ; 1289 of Wexecumbe Fine R. ; of Woxecumbe 
Pat. R; 1314 Wexcombe Ch. R; 1316 de Woxcomhe FA; 
1-170 Westcombe Cal. Inq. ; 1490 of Westcombe C. Inq. 

Originally Hvest-cumb. After loss of t, metathesis of s and 
c has taken place (Avith retention, however, of the original 
termination). That this metathesis is of a dialectal nature 
has been pointed out in connection with Axford (above). 
for e in the first svllable of a few forms is certainlv 
merely orthographic. 

Whaddon SE of Salisburv. 

%/ 

1086 {in) Watedene (twice) DB; 1109—20 Rwatedena Os- 
mund; 1243 in Waddone Macray; 1272 Wadden{e) C. Inq.; 
Edw. I in Wafdene Rot. H; 1290 Wadden Ch. R; early 
14th cent, in Wafden TN; 1316 Whaddon FA; 1428 
Whadden ib. 

Obviously from ViivM{e)-dene {denu); OE Invade {= wheat) 
is found as a first element in several pi. ns. The «-vowel 
indicates absence or early loss of the final e of the first 
element in the OE form; (see Bergsten, p. 33). 

Whaddon SW of Melksham. 

1086 Wadone DB; 1253 Waddon C. Inq.; 1428 Whaddon FA. 

A comparison of the old forms of this and the preceding 

name indicates that the two names are of different orio^in. 

in spite of their conformity at the present daj^. The ter- 



172 

mination of the present name seems to have been dun, 
and the first element one would be inclined to derive from 
OE wad fwoad^), particularly as this plant-name occurs in 
several OE pi. ns (see Kemble's index). 

Whitbourne W of Warminster. 

1396 Whytehorne Cal. Inq. 

Probably ^cet pcem (pcere) Invltan human ['^cet pcere hivttan 
hiirne], referring to a little affluent of the r. Frome. The 
calcareous nature of the soil accounts for the name. There 
was also, however, an OE p. n. Hwita (see Mliller, p. 56), 
and the possibility of this p. n. being present in Whithoume 
is naturally not excluded. 

Whitcombe near Hilmarton. 

1086 Widecome DB; 1291 de JVydecumbe Pat. E; 1316 de 
Wydecombe FA; 1324 Wydecoiinibe Pat. R; 1428 in Wy de- 
combe FA. 

Originally ''"''se tvtda cmnb (the broad valley). The develop- 
ment is clear. For the absence of b in the DB form see 
Stolze § 34. 

Whiteparish SE of Salisbury. 

1306 Whyteparisch Cal. Inq.; 1318 of Wyteparosche C. Inq.; 
1324 of La Whiteparisshe Pat. R; 1487 White Parish C. Inq. 
The parish is situated in the White Chalk district, and this 
explains its name. 

« 

Whitley NW of Melksham. 

1001 -fat Wiilege CD no. 706; 1085 Witelie DB (prob. iden- 
tical); 1167 Wittelega Pipe E; 1254 Whitele Pat. E; 1286 
W hitler Ch. E; 1333 Whijtele Br. Mus. 

It is impossible to say whether the first element was 
the OE adj. hunt or the p. n. Hwlta. The origin may 
consequently have been "^'cet }mm {pmre) hwltan lea^e or "^a^t 
Hwtta^i lea^e. 



173 

Wilcot NW of Pewsey. 
1086 Wilcofe DB; 1205 Wilcote Cal. Rot. Ch. ; 1220 de 
WilcofU. L. CL; 1285 in Wijlekote Ch. R: c. 1290 deWijle- 
cote T. Eccl. ; 1428 in Wijl{e)cote FA. 

From ^Wil{l)cm cot{e), Willa (^Wila) being probably a pet- 
form of one of the numerous p. n. compounds with Wil-. 
Cf. Wilton (E of Burbage), below, which seems to contain 
the same p. n. 

Wilsford SW of Pewsey. 

892 ivifeles ford CS no. 567; 933 icifehs ford ib. no. 699; 
1086 Wivlesford DB (prob. identical); 1218 Wiveksford 
Macray; 1288 Wyllisford Dugdale; 1316, 1428 Wyveles- 
ford FA. 

The first element contains a p. n., which in OE is only 
recorded in pi. ns. That this p. n. in certain cases may 
be of Scand. origin (ONorse Vifill) is indisputable (see 
Bjorkman, Pers. I, p. 175 f.). but it seems also quite certain 
— as Zachrisson points out in Stud, i mod. sprakvet. YI, 
p. 278 — that there existed a native ^Wifel as well; (note 
Wifeleshale, Warws., CS no. 127, A. D. 710). 

Wilsford SW of Amesbury. 

1086 Wiflesforde, Wiflesford DB (prob. identical); 1178? 
Wyuelisford Br. Mus.; c. 1200 Wivelford Osmund; c. 1207 
Wiuelesford Br. Mus.; c. 1230 Wivelesford Osmund; 1258 
Wivelesford Ch. E; 1316 WiUesford FA; 1428 Wyl es ford ih. 
See preceding name. 

Wilton. 

The name occurs as Wiltim, Wiliunia, Wilton (Wylton) in 
the following charters: CS nos. 421, 459, 468—476, 635, 
699, 714, 917, 1216, 1304; CD nos. 665, 687, 949, 1290; 
AS Chr. [871] cet Wiltune [A], [962] on Wiltune [A], DB 
de IMltimie. 



174 

This place, which has given rise to the mod. name of 
the county (see introduction), takes its name from the r. 
Wiley, on which it is situated; see Wylye, below. 

Note. {•\)WillettLin CD no. 1084 is obviously identical with mod. 
Wilton in Taunton, Soms. ; (in Kemble and Thorpe it is errone- 
ously identified with Wilton, Wilts.). 

Wilton E of Burbage. 

1227 Wulton Ch. R; 1402 Wilton FA; 1428 WijUon ib. 

Probably from *TT7/(0rt>i tun; for the p. n. Willa (Wila) 
see Wilcot, above. 

Wily see Wylye. 

Winkfieid (now called 'Wingfield') WSW of Trowbridge. 

1086 Winefel DB; c. 1290 Wyneffeld T. Eccl.; early 14th 
cent. Winesfeld TN (prob. identical); 1316 de Wyncfelde 
FA; 1428 Wijnfeld, Wenfeld ib.; 1458 Wynfeld Br. Mus. 

From *Wines (or ^Winan) feld, Wine, Wina being OE p. ns. 
The -development of Win- > Wing- and probably also the 
change of ng > nJc is due to AN influence; (cf. Dodinc for 
Doding, Hanlinc for Harding, etc.; see Hildebrand, p. 360). 
WinJc field, the mod. official spelling, represents an earlier 
pronunciation, which is now quite abandoned. Cf. Wingfield, 
Derbs. (Walker, p. 269), Wingfield, Beds. (Skeat, PI. Ns of 
Beds., p. 18), and Winsley, below. For the loss of d in 
the DB form see Stolze § 37. 

Winsley W of Bradford. 

1316 Wynesleij FA; 1362 Winsleigh Phiilipps' fines. 

Originally "^cet Wines (or '■Winan) lea^e. On account of 
the proximity of this place to Winhfield, the p. n. which 
is contained in these two names may perhaps have repre- 
sented one and the same person. 



175 

Winterbourne Bassett SSE of Wootton Basset. 

1086 Wintrehurne DB 71 a; 1178? North. Wijnterburn Br. Mus.; 
1198 Winterhuni ib.; 1 199 Nort Wintborh Rot. Ch. ; 1270 North- 
winferhurna Cli. R; c. 1290 Wi/nf burn Basset T. EccL; 1316 
Wynterburne Basset FA; 1325 Wynterbourne Bassett Ch. R. 

Originally '""'cet pcem (p(^re) tvinter-biiiman (cet p^re to.-burne), 
here denoting the northern head-water of the r. Kennet. 
This common name was certainly applied to streams that 
dried up in summer. 

W. Bassett was one of the old estates of the AN 'Bassett'- 

family. 

Note. There seems no reason to locate Winterhurna CD no. 
269 in Wilts., as is stated in Kemble's index, nor ^Winterhorne 
CS no. 886 (as Birch suggests). If {on) Wi7iterburnau CD no. 
422 was a Wilts, stream, it is to be located in the south-west 
of the county (in the neighbourhood of Knoyle). 

Winterbourne Dauntsey NE of Salisbury. 

fram winter burnan CS no. 1286; 1086 Wintreburne DB^; 
1316 Winterburne Dauntesey FA; 1428 Wynterbourn Daun- 
tesey ib. 

The name refers orioinally to the affluent of the Lower 
Avon which is now called 'the Bourne^ '^. Cf. W. Earls, 
W. Ford, W. Gunner (or Cherborough), below, all of which 
derive their name from the same stream. 'Dauntsey^ is a 
native family name (probably taken from Dauntsey SE of 
Malmesbury). 

Winterbourne Earls NE of Salisbury. 

1086 Wintreburne DB; c. 1290 Wynfborn Comitis T. Eccl.; 
1316 Winterburne Comitis FA; 1323 Eurlesivynterbourne 
Pat. R; 1324: Heorlesivynterbourne FA. 

^ All the four mod. WinterbourDes NE of Salisbury are, no 
doubt, represented in DB, for there are no less than seven 
Wintreburnes mentioned in Exon DB under Alderbury hundred. 

" The same stream which in its upper course was at one 
time called {^•)Colinga burn{e)\ see Collingbourne, above. 



176 

The manor has been in possession of the Earls of Lan- 
caster, Lincoln, and Salisbury (see FA, pp. 200, 216, 239). 

Winterbourne Ford NE of Salisbury. 
1086 Wintreburne DB; 1320 Winterl)ourncforcl Cal. inq. da. 

Winterbourne Gunner or Cherborough NE of Salisbury. 

1086 Wintreburne DB; 1199 Maiden Winfborh Eot. Ch.; 
King John Maidwinterhurgh Dugdale (corrujDt); 1266 Wintre- 
bnrn Gunore Pat. 11; 1270 Mmjdenwinterbiirne Ch. E; 1290 
Wynterburn Ounnore ib.; c. 1290 Wynfborn Cherburg T. 
EccL; 1314 Maidene Wynterborne C. Inq.; 1316 Winterburne 
Oonnor FA; 1332 Winterburne Cherberwe CI. E-. 

'Gunner^ is a corruption of 'Gunnora\ referring to Gun- 
nora de la Mere, who held lands here in the 12th century, 
and the epithet 'Maiden^ may also refer to this lady. ^Cher- 
borough' is a family name. 

Winterbourne Monkton N of Avebury. 

1086 Wintreborne DB 66 c; c. 1290 Wynfburn Monacli' T. 
EccL; 1316 Wynterborne Monachorum FA; 1544 Winterborn 
MouncMon Cat. A. D. 

The village is situated on the same stream as Winter- 
bourne Bassett; see above. The distinctive 'Monkton' is due 
to the fact that the Abbot of Glastonbury was formerly 
tenant of the manor (see DB). 

Note. There seems no reason whatever to identify {cet) Winter- 
human CS no. 1145 with this place, as is suggested by Birch. 

Winterbourne Stoke W of Amesbury. 

1086 Wintreburne-Stoch DB^; 1 1Q7 Winlburh Stoehe Pipe E,; 
1248 de Winterburnestoke Macray; 1283 WynterbournestoJce 
C. Inq.; 1316 de WyntcrburnestoJce FA. 

^ The mod. equivalents of the other Winterhurnes mentioned 
in Exon DB under Dole hundred seem impossible to identify 
(see, however, the suggestions made by Jones, pp. 241, 242). 



177 

Originally '^cet pcem stoce (for OE stoc see Baverstock). 
'Winterbourne/, which in the present case is the distinctive 
name, refers to the affluent of the Wiley which passes here, 

Winterslow ENE of Sahsbur}^ 

1086 Wmtresleu, Wintreslei (three times) DB; 1166 Winter- 
lawa Bey Pipe R; UTS'? Wyntreslaiva Br. Mus.; c. 1190 
of Wintreslewe Gal. France; 1199 in Wintlawe Rot. Ch.; 
1201 Wintreslau Br. Miis. ; 1216 de Wintreleive R. L. 01.; 
1249 of Wmterslewe 0. Inq.: 1275 Wijntreslawe ib. ; 1316 
de Wintevslewe FA; 1323 of Wijntereslotve Ch. E,; 1402, 1428 
de Wy liter slew e FA. 

Originally "^Wintran QYiyitresl) hlciiv (lild^w). OE hiaiv 
Qdceic) = '(funeral) mound'. Wintra is recorded as an OE 
p. n. as early as A. D. 699, and a native Winter may 
perhaps also have existed (although not recorded as an 
independent name except on the Continent). For the con- 
fusion of the second element with lei (< OE lea^e) cf. 
Chedglow, above. Note in connection with this name on 
ivintres lilcewe OS no. 761, mentioned among the boundaries 
of Garanford (Garford, Berks.). 

The manor was for a time Crown property (see Jones, 
p. 243), which accounts for the distinctive 'Regis\ 

Wishford, Great and Little NNW of Wilton. 

1086 Wicheford (twice) DB; c. 1190 de Wylford Major I 
Macray; 1227, 1268 Wicheford Ch. U; 1217 Wic ford C. Inq.; 
1289 Magna Wycheford ib.; 1316 Magna Whieheford, Parva 
W. FA; 1324 Wychford, Litel Wycford ib.; 1336 Muchele- 
ivycheford Pat. E; 1351 Muchel Wichford Br. Mus.; 1408 
Magna Wichefford ib.; 1476 Little Whisford Cal. Inq.; 1493 
Wisheford C. Inq.; 1513 Wyssheford Magna Br. Mus. 

Originally 'hvic-ford. {wlc = 'dwelling', 'cottage'). The 
late change of tf>f is quite analogous to the case of 
'Ashelton, the mod. pronunciation of Etchilhampton ; see 
Zachrisson, p. 158 f.. and Etchilhampton, above. 

12 E. Ekblom 



178 

Wolf Hall near Burbage. 

1086 Ulfela DB; 1180 Wulfhala Pipe E; 1199 de Wulfhale 
Eot. Ch.; 1324 Wolphal FA; 1332 Wolf hale C. Inq.; 
1451 de Wolfehale E. Pat.; 1485 in Wolfale C. Inq.; 1490 
Wulfall ib.. 

From '■^Widfan (Wulfesl) heall (or Jiealli); '^Vulfa is to be 
considered as a hypocoristic form of some name beginning 
with Wulf-. Wulf is recorded as an independent p. n. 

Woodborough W of Pevvsey. 

1240 in Wudeberg CI. E; 1258 de Wodeherg E. fin. exc. ; 
1277 Wodehore C. Inq.; c. 1290 Wodebergh T. Eccl. ; 1316 
de Wodeberghe FA; 1428 Wodebergh ib.; 1596 Woodborough 
Br. Mus. 

Originally Huudu-beor^. For the frequent substitution of 
-borough for -bevgh see Brokenborough, above. 

Note, {to) wudiibiirh {-fwudiiheorch) hylle CD nos. 436, 698, 
985, 1036, 1108 is not identical with the present place, as is 
stated by Kemble, but was obviously situated in south Wilts, 
(between Bower Chalk and Britford). 

Woodford NNW of Salisbury. 

972 {to pcem ealdan) tvuduforda CS no. 1286; 1120 Wodeford 
Macray; 1214: in Wudeford R. Oblat. ; 1226 Wdeford Osmund; 
1316 Woodeford Magna, Wodeford Parva FA. 

Note. ■\Wodeforde CD no. 460 is to be located in the north- 
w^est corner of Wilts.; (when Kemble identifies it with mod. 
Woodford, he is probably referring to the present place,) 

Woodhill S of Wootton Bassett. 

1086 Wadhulle DB; early 14th cent. Wodhull TN; c. 1340 
Wodhull NI; 1402 in Wodhidle FA. 

Originally ■^wudu-hgll. The a-vowel in the DB form is 
certainly a spelling mistake. 



179 

Woodrow adjoining Melksham. 

1280 of La Woderoive CI. E; 1286 {in) Woderewe Ch. R; 
1298 (of) Woderoive Pat. II; 1309 Woderowe ib.; 1490 of 
Wodereive C. Inq. 

This name corresponds to an OE '''iuudu-rdiv (rmv), \;-'cet 
(p^re) wudu-raive (r^ive)]. The meaning of this compound 
seems, however, not quite clear. Did it mean 'edge of a 
wood^? 

Wootton Bassett. 

680 ■\Wdetun CS no. 54; 745 '\Wdetun ib. no. 170; 844 
■\JVttune ib. 447; 937 -fWdetun ib. no. 718; 1065 Wdetun 
CD no. 817; 1086 Wodetofie DB; 1230 Wutton Gh. U; 1271 
Wotton Basset C. Inq.; 1316 Wotton Bassett FA. 

Originally "^hviidu-tmi. The place is an old estate of the 
AN 'Bassetts'. 

Note. There seems no reason to locate Wudetmie CD no. 1183 in 
Wilts., as Kemble does. In CS (no. 969) it is located in Hants. 

Wootton Rivers S of Marlborough. 

803—805 Wdutun CS no. 324; 1086 Otone DB ; 1194 de 
Wotton Rot. Cur.; c. 1290 fZe TI^o//owe T. EccL; 1316 Wootton 
FA; 1332 Wotton Ryvers Pat. R; 1428 Wotton (Eyver) FA; 
1490 Wutton Byver C. Inq. 

See preceding name. 'Rivers^ represents a French family 
name (see Hildebrand, p. 342); according to Jones, p. 228, 
it refers to the Walter de Riperia, mentioned in Abbr. 
Plac, p. 78. 

Worton SW of Potterne. 

1173 Wrton Osmund; 1175—79 Wrtona Br. Mus.; 1309 
Worton ib.; 1316 Worton FA. 

I suggest an original ''^^wyvt-tun, which may have meant 
much the same as 'garden'. (OE ivyrt = herb, vegetable). 
Cf. Worton, Oxfs. (see Alexander, PL Ns of Oxfs.) and 



180 

Wortle}^ (in Tankersley par.), W. R. of Yorks. (see Moor- 
man). 

WraxhaU, North [rceksdl] NW of Corsliam. 

1086 Werocheshalle DB; 1281 de Worxhale Pat. E (or = W 
South); 1316 de Wroxhale FA; 1428 in Wroxale ib.; 1468 
Northwroxhall Cal. Inq. ; 1477 NortJiwraxhall ib. 

From "^Wrocces lieall, '-"Wrocic) being a p. n., found in 
the local Wroccesheale CD no. 768; cf. Wroxton (Alexan- 
der, PL Ns of Oxfs.), Wroxhill (Skeat, PL Ns of Beds., 
p. 29), and Wraxhall, Soms. (1323 WrocJceshale C. Inq.) 
The present name, like the following, offers another example 
of the influence of the tendency among the Wilts, dialects 
to change o > a; (see under Calcutt). For the AN rendering 
of Wr- by Wer- see Zachrisson, p. 51. 

Wraxhall, South N of Bradford. 

c. 1290 WrocJceshcde, de Wroxhale T. EccL; 1316 de Wroxhale 
FA; 1468 Suthivroxhall Cal. Inq.; 1477 Siithivraxhall ib. 
See preceding name. 

Wroughton S of Swindon. 

1086 Wertune (prob. identical), in Wervetone ([)rob. ident. 
but corrupt) DB; 1226 TFer^/on Phillipps' ped. fin.; Edw. I 
in Overe Werstone, in Nether Werstoii' Rot. H; c. 1290 
Nethertverston T. EccL ; 1300 Wrfton, Wertonam (Lat. ace.) 
Ch. E; 1316 Werston FA; 1328 Overwarston C. Inq.; 1428 
(Nefhyr) Wroghton, Over Worston, Nethyr WroftonFA; 1488 
Nethir Wroughton C. Inq. 

Undoubtedly from '^iveorc-tun [meaning much the same 
as '■^weorcmannes (tveorcmanna) tUn]. The development of 
the combination rt has taken place on exactly the same 
lines as pre-Germ. M; [note that the tAvo-fold develop- 
ment of this combination (viz. ght and ft) is represented 
here]. Cf. Brougliton, above, s in some forms is probably 
an AN rendering of the palatal fricative / (see under 



181 

Brigmerston). Nether W. seems to have denoted the present 
village, and Over W. the farm immediately south of it, now 
called Overtown. 

Wyke near Trowbridge. 

1252 of Wijhe Ch. R. 
"ret (pa;m) tc'ice. 

Wylye or Wily [waili] on the r. Wiley ^ SE of Heytesburj-. 

688 Wlleo (flumen), [Uuilig] CS no. 70; 860 he ivilig ih. 500; 
880 — 85 cet Welig ib. 553; Giiilou (flumen) Asser; 901 Buvilig 
ib. 595; 940 he Wilig ib. 757; 943 wilig ib. 782; 946— 
955 cet Wilig ib. 819; 957 tvilig ib. 992; 963 on ivilig 
ib. 783; 968 on tvilig ib. 1216; 1045 on ivili{stream) CD 
no. 778; 1086 Wilgi, Will DB; c. 1125 Wile (fluvius) W. 
Malm.; 1270 Wili Ch. E; c. 1290 Wghj T. Eccl.; 1316 
Wgleg FA. 

This is, no doubt, a Celtic name. McClure, p. 250 foot- 
note, mentions two river-names in Wales which in all 
probability contain the same element, viz. Aher-guilly and 
Camguili. It is possible that the name is connected with 
Welsh givjj = 'water'. 

Note. It is very uncertain whether Uuilea CD no. 115, Wilig 
ib. no. 611, and Wigli, Wilig ib. nos. 664, 665 are to be located 
in Wiltshire, in spite of Kemble's statement, {on) Wiles yge 
ib. no. 1136 seems to have been situated in Hants., near Overton 
(SW of Basingstoke). 

Yarnfield NNW of Mere. 

Hen. Ill Jernefeld Dugdale; 1260 G erne feud Br. Mus.; 1536 
Yernefeld Dugdale. 

I derive this name from "^Emman feldj with change of 
stress in the initial diphthong; (on this point see Ablington 



^ It may be pointed out that all the OE forms, quoted above, 
refer to the river at different places. 



182 

and Urchfont, above). Cf. Yarnfield, Staffs., occurring in 
ME as Ernefeld, Ernefen (see Duignan, Notes on Staffs. 
PL Ns), which undoubtedly is to be explained in the same 
way ^, and also Yarnton Oxfs. {<-'Eardinga tun ; Alexander, 
PI. Ns of Oxfs.). There are also two other Wilts, names 
which, although no old references have been found, most 
probably contain the same p. n., viz. Yarnhury, an ancient 
camp N of Steeple Langford, and Yarnhrook, a small hamlet 
S of Trowbridge. It is, at any rate, quite obvious that 
these two names cannot contain OE '^earn. -feud (Br. Mus.) 
shows AN vocalization of I. 

Yatesbury E of Calne. 
imQ EtesherieJ)B\ 1199 i?i/«M/r Feet of fines; 1207 Yttehir 
R. Oblat. (prob. identical); 1226 Geteshir Osmund; 1239 
Yeteshur Ch. R; 1252 Yateburi ib.; Yetehiry Pat. R; 1263 
YeUesUry ib.; c. 1290 leteshury, YaUeshur' T. Eccl.; 1309 
Hyateshury C. Inq.; 1316 Yatteshury FA; 1324, 1428 Fa/^e-s- 
hury ib. 

On account of the twofold development of initial OE la, 
it is quite impossible to say whether the first element of 
this name (and of Yatton, below) was originally ^eat {^'geata ^) 
or Eata. Binz's statement, p. 152, that Yatesbury is an 
example of a pi. n. containing ^eat (= the god Woden), is 
consequently not at all reliable. See Zachrisson's discussion 
of this question, p. 65. 

Yatton Keynell NW of Chippenham. 
1086 Etone DB 66 b, Etone ib. 70 b (according to Jones); 
Getone ib. (possibly ident.); 1257 latton C. Inq.; c. 1290 

^ Duignan's opinion that the first element represents OE 
^earn (yarn) seems very improbable, but I admit that the 
influence of ME yern, yarn may have aided the survival of the 
ia-forms. 

^ a hypocoristic form of some compound p. n. with ^eat 
as the first element, the existence of which there is no reason 
to doubt. There is even one on record, viz. Geatfleda (fern.) 
CS no. 1254. 



183 

de Yattone T. Eccl.; 1316 Yatton FA; 1317 of laftone 
Kaijngnel C. Inq. 

See preceding name. 'Keynel? (Kennel) is a family name 
of uncertain provenience. 

Zeals WSW of Mere. 
1086 Sele, Sela DB; 1220 6'e/e.s Osmund; 1246 /S'e?e.s- Pat. E; 
1263 Celes C. Inq.; 1299 Belles Gal. Inq.; 1428 Selcsayles- 
hury FA; 1458 Seles Ayleshury Cal. Inq. 

OE sele, selas ('house', 'dwelling'), z in the mod. form 
is due to a tendency for initial s to become z in this 
dialect; see Ellis, p. 38. Cf. Zeal, Devon, according to Birch 
identical with -^at Scale OS no. 968. 

'AilesbmV is a familv name. 



List of second elements in Wiltshire 

place-names ^ 

OE cecer in. : Beanacre, Goatacre. 

OE ceim n. : Chitterne, Colerne, Potterne, Vasterne. 

OE hece f. (beech): Burbage (probably). 

OE heor^ (beorh) m. : Brokenborough, Marlborough, AVan- 
borough, Woodborough (with later substitution). 

OE broc m. : Beversbrook, Westbrook. 

OE hroiu m. : Southbroom. 

OE hryc^i.: Bulbridge, Cowbridge, Longbridge (Deverill), 
Trowbridge. 

OE hurh (dat. hijrig) f. : Alderburj^, Amesbury, Avebury, 
Badbury, Barbury, Chisbury, Chisenbury, Fosburj^ Hazel- 
bury, Heytesbur}^, Malmesbury, liamsbury, Salisbury, Tis- 
bury, Westbury, Yatesbury; [uncompounded in Bury 
(Blunsdon)]. 

OE hum, hurne f., hurna m.: frequent. 

OE cealc m.; Bower Chalk, Broad Ch., (originally un- 
compounded). 

OE cirice f. : Ivychurch. 

OE cUf n.: Baycliff, S walloAV cliff e; [uncomp. in Clevancy, 
Cliff e (Pypard)]. 

OE cote f., cot n.: frequent. 

OE croft m.: Paxcroft. 



■"■ For practical reasons I have preferred to state the OE forms 
of the elements, although many names have of course been formed 
at a much later date. 



185 

OE cumh m.: Alcombe, Boscombe, Burcombe, Catcombe, 
Elcombe, Hippenscombe, Stitchcombe, Tidcombe, Wexcombe. 
Whitcombe; [imcomp. in (Castle) Combe, Combe, Coombe 
(Bissett)]. 

OE denu f., dene m. f. : Chisledon (with a later substitu- 
tion), Figheldean, Marden, Standen, Surrendell?, Whad- 
don (SE of Salisbury; with substitution); (uncomp. in 
Dean). 

OE die m. f. : Grims Ditch, Wansdyke. 

OE dun f. : Bay don, Blunsdon, Bowden, Braydon?, Cla- 
rendon, Fresdon, Garsdon, Gomeldon, Hannington (with 
substitution), Haydon, Hazeldon, Moredon, Swindon, Whad- 
don (SW of Meiksham). 

OE eard m. (dwelling, home): Tollard. 

OE feld m. : Bradfield, Chalfield, Cowesfield, Froxfield, 
Winkfield. Yarnfield. 
OE fen{n) m. n.: Eatfyn. 

OE font Cfunt) m.: Fovant, Teffont, Urchfont. 

OE ford m.: frequent. 

OE geard m.: Derriads. 

OE gelad n., see lad. 

OE ^el(et{e) n.: Longleat. 

OE {ge)m^re n.: Bridmore (w^th a later substitution), 
Buttermere, Imber; (uncomp. in Mere). 

OE ham m. : Corsham, Foxham, Grittenham, Meiksham. 

OE }icwi{m) m.: Chippenham; (uncomp. in Ham). 

Either ham or ham{m): Bremilham, Bromham, Cadnam, 
Harnham, Hartham, Horningsham, Ingiesham, Lackham, 
Lyneham, Pewsham, Tockenham. 

OE ham-tun (homestead): Bathampton, Chilhampton, Ne- 
therharapton, Quidhampton, Sevenhampton, Wedhampton. 

OE heafod n. : (head of a down) : Donhead. 

OE hecdl f.: Bincknoll, Mildenhall, Wraxhall (prob. both). 

Either heall or Jiealh m.: Ludgershall, Midgehall, Eushall, 
Wolf Hall. 

OE hid f . : Fifield (2), Fyfield (with a later substitution), 

13 E. Ekblom 



186 

Tilshead, Tinhead {-head due to weakning); [uncomp. in 
Hyde]. 

OE hlivisc n.: Hardenhuish; (uncomp. in Huish). 

OE hi aw Qilcew) m. : Chedglow, Winterslow. 
• OE hlinc m.: Standlynch. 

OE holt m. n. : Poulshot; (uncomp. in Holt). 

OE hryc^ m. : Ditteridge, Eastridge, Lockeridge, Sand- 
ridge; (uncomp. in E.idge). 

OE hijll m. f.: Greenhill, Lushill, Oakhill, Sedgehill, Wood- 
hill; (Hill Deverill). 

OE hyrst m. (hurst): Gastard. 

OE le^ f. (in Wilts, pi. ns = 'marshy land'): Dauntsey, 
Eisey, Minety, Oaksey, Patney, Pewsey, (Seagry?). 

OE lacli. {^elad n.): Chapmanslade, Chicklade, Cricklade. 

OE land n.: Blackland. 

OE leah m. f. : frequent. 

OE me arc f. : Chilmark. 

OE mar m.: Blackmore. 

OE mynster n. : Warminster. 

OE ora m. (border, bank): Wardour; (uncomp. in Oare). 

W^ parish (paroehe, etc.): Whiteparish. 

OE port m. (gate, entrance): Westport. 

OE rmv {rd;w) f.: Woodrow. 

OE stan m.: Slierston. 

OE stede m.: Clrimstead. 

OE stoc m. (= place): Baverstock, Beechingstoke, Braden- 
stoke, Earl Stoke, Laverstock, Odstock; [uncomp. in (Purton) 
Stoke, Stoke (Farthing), Stokke, and (Winterbourne) Stoke]. 

OE treoiv n.: Bishopstrow. 

OE tmi m. ; frequent. 

OE porp {prop) m. : Eastrop, Salthrop, Westrop; (uncomp. 
in Throope). 

OE ?6'eg m.: Chittoe, Highway, E-oundway. 

OE iveorj) {tvorp, tvurp, ivyrp) m. f : Atworth, Brink- 
worth, Chelworth (2), Hamptworth, Highworth, Pertwood 
(with substitution), Sopworth, Tedworth. 



187 



OE ivlc n. (f.): Berwick (4), CliaddenAvicke, Soutliwick, 
AVadswick; [uncomp. in (Bremhill) Wick, (Farleigh) Wick, 
(Haydon) Wick, and Wyke]. 

OE (WS) ivielle, ivylle m. f. [ivijll{a) m.]: Cmdwell, 
Groundwell, Liidwell, Stovveil. 

OE wudu m.: Bowood, Heywood, Oxenwood, Thickwood, 
Westwood. 



Errata. 

p. 22, line 5 and 4 from bottom, read insufficient. 

» 25, » 4 from top, read he represented hy. 

,-> 37, » 7 and p. 39, line 10 from top, read Edward the Confessor 

» 39, » 16 from top, read occurring. 

» 73, » 6 » » » hardly any trace.